Secretary of State for International Development.
Speech: Justine Greening - Development in transition
Blog: Justine Greening - DFID, Business and the Post-2015 Agenda
Link: Read the speech on DFID's website
This morning, the London Stock Exchange hosted the Rt Hon Justine Greening MP, Secretary of State for International Development. The Secretary of State gave a speech focusing on how DFID's investments can drive growth in new and emerging markets, and how this work can support businesses operating in these markets and enhance trade. Below is a transcript of the speech. Listen to the audio by clicking the link below.
Welcome, and thank you all for coming. And thank you Xavier and the London Stock Exchange for hosting us today.
It’s fantastic to be here at the London Stock Exchange in the heart of the City to talk about economic development in developing countries and the role of businesses in that.
I’ve said from the word go in this job that Britain’s investment in International Development isn’t just the right thing to do –but it’s the smart thing to do too.
I've been clear that I want to see our investment in the right places, on the right things, spent in the right way.
So, I've started driving better value for money within DFID, by strengthening Ministerial oversight of business cases and contracts, and improving our supplier procurement.
But I also wanted to take a closer look not just at how we go about our development work, but what that work comprises.
Today I want to talk about why I will be shifting DFID’s work to include a much stronger focus on economic development and the steps we are going to take to get that strategy in place.
But I also want to more broadly address the argument from those people who fundamentally don’t buy into international development in principle.
International Trade Works
Having listened to many of the arguments, I’ve reached the conclusion that for some people, any spend on international development is the wrong priority. Obviously, our government is committed to reaching the 0.7% of GNI target. We will achieve that this year, as we host the G8. There are clearly some who think that focussing 99.3% of Britain’s Gross National Income on Britain isn’t a big enough proportion.
I can understand those arguments. And in part, they come from a sense that the UK’s national interest matters, and I completely agree with that. I went into politics because I passionately care about this country's future too.
But I'm arguing today that our investment in international development is in our national interest – in fact, I believe it's critical.
We are market making – ultimately, if we approach international development effectively.
Trade between nations creates growth, jobs and prosperity for both countries and people. It drives down prices and increases choice. Some estimate that the current proposed free trade deal between the US and EU might raise our combined GDP by nearly 150 billion euros. We're rapidly growing our exports to emerging economies like China and India, including with our Prime Minister led trade delegations, but if only the last government had been more effectively working with industry and nascent emerging markets a decade ago, how much more trade would we be being doing in those countries by now.
Here in the UK we're setting about rebalancing our own economy. We know that an economy overly reliant on the South East, or on construction and financial services isn't resilient. It’s like a car with only part of the engine working just one piston firing. So, we're rebalancing our economy, but we need to see the same thing happening globally too. International Development is in our interests not just because it creates new markets, but because I believe it can deliver a more balanced, resilient global economy.
Sustainable Business Model
So, international trade works in creating prosperity, but what about individual countries?
Again, domestically, Britain is grappling with a situation that, when you boil it down, saw us inherit a public service and welfare state that the public simply could not afford. It is driving some difficult structural decisions to rebalance from public to private sector to help build a sustainable business model for our country. And so far we’ve seen 1 million private sector jobs created.
But just as we cannot continue here in Britain with an unsustainable business model, neither can the developing countries DFID works with.
Over the last 10 years my department has done some very effective work, generally helping to build vital basic services – health, education, water and sanitation. That work has have helped to make a difference to millions of people’s lives. We're going to keep doing it.
But I believe you can’t build a sustainable public sector without helping to build a private sector. Sustainable public services need a funding stream of tax receipts and that means a thriving private sector. A strategy to do one without the other risks a short term improvement for people in poverty without a long term plan to make sure those gains are locked in.
Yes, we need to work to put in place core services – they are vital, but they must go hand in hand with the building of wealth and an economy to sustain them.
So, I want to work tackle poverty and see an end to aid dependency through jobs.
The facts are compelling – wherever long-term per capita growth has been higher than 3%, we have also seen significant falls in poverty.
Look at China – in 1981, 84% of China’s population lived under $1.25 per day. By 2008, this proportion had fallen dramatically to 13%. This was principally driven by the tenfold increase in per capita GDP over the period.
Look at Vietnam – a three fold increase in per capita GDP resulted in poverty levels falling from 64% in 1993 to 17% in 2008.
DfID used to have major country programmes delivering aid in both countries. Now our relationship is significantly different – it’s no longer aid, it’s turning to trade. The shift has happened. As the Indian Finance Minister said of his own country, "Aid is the past Trade is the future."
Economists may argue about many things, but not about this.
Economic development is what leaders want too – it makes political sense. Here's what President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia said in October last year:
"Aid is not an alternative to self-sufficiency."
As she sees it, it's about "how best to create new, stable trading partners that can create opportunities and jobs in emerging and donor countries."
Her words, and I think she’s right.
But it's not just good for them, it’s good for us too – it makes business sense as well.
As 28 top CEOs wrote in a joint letter to the Financial Times today, "This isn’t about corporate social responsibility; we know that developing countries will be major markets and important sources of supply in the future, in fact many already are. Developing countries become emerging economies and emerging economies become the engines of future global growth and prosperity."
That's what they say.
And investing to drive economic development as well as to put in place basic services, isn’t just good for politicians, or businesses....
If you ask people in developing countries what they want, they’ll give you one top priority – it’s a job. It doesn’t matter whether you ask men or women, they give the same answer. People, wherever they are, want the opportunity to be financially independent, and to have the dignity of being able to provide for themselves and their family.
And it’s more than that even. It’s about the right and the need that people have to find out and reach their potential. I believe we have to directly respond to that jobs challenge.
As I've said before, my department is called International Development, I'm going to take the Ronseal approach to our strategy because the evidence is clear. Economic growth is essential for sustained poverty reduction.
So how can we do it, how do we drive economic development?
I think it boils down to probably 3 different aspects.
Firstly, reducing overall barriers to trade and investment – whether regulatory, infrastructure, legal or institutional.
Secondly, unlocking the ability of entrepreneurs and business people in developing countries to themselves drive economic growth through their own businesses being more and more successful.
Thirdly and critically, I believe it also means greater investment by business, and I want to see UK companies joining the development push.
I believe British businesses – not just those led by the 28 top CEOs who signed their letter to the Financial Times today, not just those listed here on the London Stock Exchange, but more broadly across our country, have a key role to play.
As the PM has said, we’re in a global race. But if you want to be ahead of the game, be at the front, you can’t simply follow the crowd, you've got to lead it. And I think it means being in emerging market countries – not just those of today, but those of tomorrow too.
It's about spotting when those markets can move from the “too difficult and risky” category to the “emerging opportunity” category.
And Africa has some of the most impressive growth stats in the global economy.
Last year, 6 out of the 15 fastest growing economies were in Africa.
Sub-Saharan Africa averaged 5.8% growth over the last decade and South Asia, 7.3%.
So, I believe that many of the countries in which DFID works are in that "emerging opportunities" box, but many of you can see that because you’re there too.
By 2020, Unilever expects developing markets to account for 70% of total sales – that’s huge. Through an innovative partnership with the NGO Care, Unilever is already using a rural sales force comprising 2,800 of the poorest women in Bangladesh who now sell the products of 7 major companies including Unilever, and 12,000 more women are expected to be reached by the end of 2014.
Coca-Cola is extending its distribution network and transporting medical supplies in Cola Life packing on its trucks.
I know that the London Stock Exchange is building financial services infrastructure through forming exchange partnerships, and giving companies in developing economies an international capital raising platform.
M&S, who work hand in hand with Oxfam and other key NGOs on their Sustainable Retail Advisory Board.
These companies know that consumers care about corporate values and behaviour more now than ever before, they vote with their money. Just look at the continuing success of Fairtrade – over £1.3 billion worth of Fairtrade goods were sold in the UK in 2011. It was just £50 million a decade earlier.
Having spent nearly 15 years in industry before becoming an MP in 2005, I recognise that although there is are opportunities to be involved, for many companies, successfully crystallising them can be a really complex challenge.
It's complex for my department too. As I was very clear on last month in my priority speech last month, I am not talking about tied aid. I do not believe that is the way to achieve good, sustainable development. It means what’s good for companies comes first, rather than what’s good for developing countries. It’s the wrong way to go about things.
And of course, there may always be companies who don't care about behaving responsibly when they invest, but DFID works to try to tackle those risks with work on transparency and governance.
But as I said recently, we can’t just see business as a risk to developing countries. We must also see it as an opportunity. Business interests and developing country interests can align far more often than not.
As the last UN Secretary General Kofi Annan said: “It is the absence of broad-based business activity, not its presence, that condemns much of humanity to suffering”.
DFID work with Business
So, there’s a lot to do but there's a lot we're already doing.
DFID's work on technology investments has already helped to unlock smart business investment in developing countries.
Look at Vodafone and the hugely successful M-PESA mobile banking phone service. DFID match-funded Vodafone's initial investment and there are now 17m users in Kenya and a third of Kenyan GDP is expected to pass through the M-PESA system. A mobile bank account essentially for millions who otherwise wouldn't have one. One that they can do business and trade with.
We've worked on developing innovative value chains which have the potential to transform markets and communities.
Our Food Retail Industry Challenge Fund of £7.4m has helped companies like Taylor’s of Harrogate transform how Rwandan tea is produced and sold to them, and generated new products.
We’re also building local capacity through supply chains. With DFID's support the Waitrose Foundation are working in South Africa, investing in improving the skills and job prospects of tens of thousands of young people in the communities that support Waitrose supply chains. It makes good sense to keep supply chains sustainable.
Waitrose is actually the first partner in our new Trade and Global Value Chains Initiative that we've kicked off and I'm delighted that we've had expressions of interest from other major retailers like M&S and Sainsbury’s who are eager to get involved.
In Bangladesh, we are working with Tesco to establish an Apparel Skills Foundation to equip the industry with the training, expertise and tools to improve productivity and working conditions. It is going to train staff in over 100 factories, reaching a quarter of a million garment workers.
In South Sudan we have partnered with SAB Miller so that 1200 farmers can get involved in supplying SAB Miller’s brewery in Juba.
On the health agenda we're working with a wide range of pharmaceutical companies such as GSK on the supply of vaccines to the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation, a public-private initiative to fund vaccines for children in the world's 70 poorest countries, and GAVI’s partnership with Vodafone is exploring how mobile phone technology can help increase vaccination coverage.
On education, we are exploring with Pearson how we can work together to develop innovative, sustainable solutions for quality education for millions of children, with real accountability for parents.
Lots of individual projects in different sectors, but I believe we've only just scratched the surface.
I want to see far more (British) businesses joining the development push with DfID. We all have a huge opportunity to help build up responsible trade with the emerging economies of developing countries.
We're not doing anyone a favour leaving the economic coast clear to those with lower standards than our own, and I believe British companies can have a real role in growing developing economies through trade.
Today I can announce that DFID has already begun to develop the comprehensive and responsible strategy that we need for working with businesses interested in responsible investment in developing countries.
We want to do more with the companies we're already working with, but I don't just want to reach out to the largest companies in our country. I want medium and smaller companies to get involved too.
Take Reid Steel in Christchurch, Dorset – designer and manufacturer of two 120m bridges in Nepal which should be able to better withstand earthquakes and flash floods. One bridge was opened in January this year and the second is due to open in June.
And we can do so much MORE.
Britain is open for business and I want DFID to be open for business too.
We are already working with the CBI. I want to get together with industry bodies across different sectors, NGOs and business schools.
I want an ambitious approach that sees DFID as a hub for knowledge sharing and advice and providing in-country support, where projects have a clear development gain for the countries concerned.
I want your help to do that. DfID will lead this work across government, linking up with BIS, UKTI and FCO to deliver it.
As I said before, for the countries we all want to see develop, we do them no favours by leaving the economic coast clear to those with corporate governance standards that are lower than our own.
We have those standards. Britain has those standards. And one thing I’ve learnt in this job is that those standards, our British approach matters. It is recognised and valued across the world. That's why so many international companies list right here in London.
They know we are people who stick to our word. The London Stock Exchange motto is "Dictum meum pactum", "my word is my bond". Let us use that approach for good.
And if your company simply wants to do something practical that isn't anything to do with your core business, but you just want to make a difference, I’d like to see how DFID can better provide a framework for industry to know how to go about it in the right, responsible and sustainable way. I hope I can get our world class NGOs to help on this too.
Local Business Environment
So there's lots of work to do with you, but alongside that, I want DFID to do more to help build up strong and investable business environments in the developing countries themselves.
That means helping countries build their own tax base, squeezing out corruption and providing the technical advice that means when economic growth does happen, countries are well placed to then reap and reinvest the gains.
Last week, with the PM, we hosted the Afghanistan Mining, Oil and Gas Investor Forum at No 10. It brought together the Afghan Mining Minister – a man who has, with DFID’s help and the excellent pro-bono advice of former head of KPMG Michael Wareing, delivered a Mining Law that will now pass through the Afghanistan Parliament.
Afghanistan sits on an estimated $2-3 trillion of oil, gas and mineral deposits.
And with the safeguards in place, consulting with communities, ensuring jobs stay local, and the chance for tax receipts from mining to in part to be reinvested in health and education, it’s ultimately going to be business investment that unlocks Afghanistan’s future.
And DFID has also provided support to help the Afghan government to improve its tax base and tax collection. With technical advice, we have seen their tax base grown from $250m in 2004 to $2bn in 2012.
We're going to do more of that. And today, I can announce that DFID will be setting up a Tax Capability Building Unit within HMRC to provide us with an in-house team of tax experts dedicated to working in developing countries with DFID teams.
As we have seen in Afghanistan, the returns on this sort of investment can be enormous. Our first joint DFID/HMRC country projects will start this April and I expect that once we've built the unit up, by April 2017 we will have teams working in 6/7 more countries.
It also means reducing regional trade barriers.
African Union leaders have signed up to creating a free trade area by 2017. That's an ambitious plan that we want to see succeed. So dismantling trade barriers is vital.
The Economist recently cited the example of a car from China, which would cost more to take it from Tanzania to neighbouring Uganda than it did to ship it from China in the first place.
The DFID supported Africa Free Trade Initiative is dramatically speeding up border crossing between Zambia and Zimbabwe, and by 2015, DFID aims to help cut by half the average crossing time at ten major border crossings between countries in East and Southern Africa.
DFID's project, Trade Mark East Africa, aims to increase trade from the East African Community overall – our work with the revenue authority in Burundi has directly led to revenue up around 40% year-on-year for 2012; and even in South Sudan, the new customs service it's helped establish has seen customs revenues increase significantly.
Technical assistance matters and I can announce today a £51 million investment in DFID’s International Growth Centre to expand its work to Burma, Malawi, Liberia and Nigeria, providing expert, independent growth policy advice direct to governments in developing countries.
DFID is also launching a new £5m commercial law and justice programme to support the improvement of the legal environment for business and investment in developing countries. It will also increase the transfer of world class commercial legal knowledge, skills and support, much of it based here in the UK to where it is needed.
We're also working to strengthen property rights.
You wouldn’t buy a house without checking the land registry, yet in most of the developing world, the people who occupy and farm land, don’t have any legal rights to it. This matters for economic independence, because in particular for the many women who have small farms, if you don't have land, you don't have collateral, and if you don't have collateral – you can't get a loan. And if you can't get a loan, you can't develop your business. We're already doing work in Rwanda on this, so far helping to register 5 million parcels of land onto a new land registry – half of those benefitting from that have been women.
Investing in women is hugely powerful because we know that women will reinvest 90% of that income back into their families and communities, so there's a double bonus. And we know that it changes attitudes towards women in a beneficial way too.
Some NGOs have raised the issue of Land as part of their campaign on food and hunger.
And we will pursue this at the G8 alongside the transparency that we want to see, protecting legitimate investors and the rights of local communities, and also exposing those who acquire land unfairly.
Finally, expect to see my department looking at innovative financing approaches to help support this new style of development investment.
CDC’s remit has changed to better focus on the countries and sectors where we know development investment will make the biggest difference to poverty alleviation.
And I want to look at other innovative ways to do more direct investment, including more projects based on returnable capital, which sees an investment fund, investing in local companies, creating jobs, generating a return that can itself be reinvested.
So the UK will also be taking a lead on developing the global market for social impact investment which is estimated now at over £1 billion. In December I launched a new £112m programme where, for the first time, DFID will support investments that are designed to benefit the poor whilst offering a financial return to investors.
This is good for investors, who earn a financial return. It’s good for the poorest, who receive jobs and support. And good for DFID as it allows us to leverage in far more private sector finance, meaning each pound of our budget has even more impact.
I’m also pleased to announce that on 6 June the UK will be hosting an event on impact investment as part of our Presidency of the G8. This event will help catalyse this growing global opportunity to enable the market to operate effectively on a global scale.
So there is much to do.
I know that nothing changes overnight.
But what I’ve set out today is intended to signal a real shift in my department’s work – driving economic growth alongside our core work on basic services, working hand in hand with business to do that.
The countries where DFID works will be the growth markets of the next 20, 30 years. And I believe Britain can be a force for good in this world. But, I also believe British business can be.
My objective for developing countries is an end to aid dependency through jobs.
Every time Britain has been at its most successful, it’s been when we’ve been out in the world, trading, doing business. We've never stood on the sidelines. And we can't afford to start now.
he Web reminds me of early days of the PC industry. No one really knows anything. All experts have been wrong. Steve Jobs, Wired, February 1996
The global economy is collapsing. Employment of worldwide youth - and parents' children everywhere for generations to come - will be the biggest losers unless the world's richest politicians are modest enough to action learn NOW from internet by and for the poorest.
Let's take a first look at pro-youth internet economics from 1997 which is when mobile telecoms started scaling up in poorest villages of bangladesh though further parses of future's history could go back to start of the web in 1990 and the start of the spreadsheet as the killer app of networks forged by global finance for the world's biggest corporations during late 1980s. This is is when 5 global accountants raced to form a quasi monoply of ruling the world. They destroyed post-industrial economics need for multi-win modeling of goodwill (including transparency and governbing whether the world's laregst organsiations are designed around expoentials built to last or to bubble) because their monopoly depended on ruling the world's biggest eadrship decision with one perfect bottom line number that counted up ownership of things and destroyed valueing every aspect of human development that makes service and knowledge nwtork economies abundant in opposite ways to the scarcity economics of consuming up things
D 1997-2001 Bubbling dotcoms
2000 Publication of Unseen Weath - how global accounting audits are perfect only at compounding unseen risks
To 2004 - bubbling global utilites eg enron worldcom and low-trust financial knowledge management pioneere by Big 5 andersen -part of a series of 100 multi-billion meltdowns and ponzi schemes
To 2008 property and banking bubbles
To Now currency and world trade debt bubbles
Even worse note how much of the above -even if there had been some honest regulation does transitory stuff with no future value unlike real knowhow you would want your children skilled in or useful infrastructures of inter-generational wealth building
Mobiles in villages become like first telegrams to wildwest over a century ago. Economic breakthrough: most valuable info shared first like where to find a doctor, or a bes tmarket price for a villagers crops, or advance news of a cyclone/tsunami.
On the ground grameephone becomes one of the world's top 20 mobile telecoms companies and the main comparative advantage of bangaldeshi youth in sustainably growing a 21st C nation. Back at MIT (the original partnering home of Grameen Tech Labs) philanthropists from teleom business use mobiles to linkin world's largest job creation network by empowering students to compete to design apps round life critical connectivity challenges grounded in bottom up social labs. By this time Grameen's architecure is a hub network of 100000 villages centres each represneting the communla productivity of 60 vilage mothers.
As keynes revealed in Generral Theory- our human race needs to see that the world will be ruled by one of two opposite sorts of economists - those who desigtn the futures that peoples need most OR those who destroy futures poples need most.
Eraly 20th Century economists and topdown decision-makers didn't enjoy enough historical experiences to realise nations' races for industrial resources would cause half a century of world wars in Europe. There is no excuse for non-entrepreneurial economists in any 21st C government worthy of the peoples' respect let alone safety.
As milennium 3 enters its teenage years, we urgently need to viralise an economics iq test for 12 years olds up so that pro-youth economies the world over can see who are the goodwill multiplying economists and global vlage sustainability leaders.
However in 2012 this one question makes for a whole truth opener to saving urgent investment in the productivity of the net generation out of every place and peoples of our planet
From the beginning of millennium 1 which two of these 3 variables sustains growth of human productivity by orders of magnitude
a) new forms of energy
b) new technology
c) world trade?
The answer is a), b) - for more information go to The Economist archives and search "Gross World Product" - an idea that can grow far more value through generation than adding up GNPs. GWP economics offers multi-win games whereas world trade's economics metrics is at best a zero-sum game depending how speculative system designs of currencies become. That means any elderly politicians quarrelling over national debt as millennium 3 enters its teenage years instead of freeing their place to investing in youth's greatest productivity is just plain wrong. Such 100% non-economic games players terrify me as a mathematician more that any words of warning I can offer you from Einstein or Von Neumann who both wondered whether the human race would survive becoming more connected than separated. Similarly, dare I ask a thing that bothers me about wherever you think to be the smartest democracy in the world: Does it includes youth's votes in all the electioneering promises it is makes. If it doesn't then that is one heck of a system problem if our human race is ever to appreciate borderless pro-youth economics.
um in every school
What can the world learn from hispanic youth innovatipn cultures and vice versa
Will DC ever be free to exchange the most extreme diaspora change value chain models
Ilabs and YCLabs -mapping where worldwide youth own labs for open source world trading
The tri-capital debate of what the first 25 bottom billion multinationals value models will look like - boulder-boston-dhaka- thanks to sponsorship by Dlab, MediaLab and Abdul latifee
Where do alumni of the first 50000 change the world mooc go next and can GPY help…
he international community should advocate security and co-operation, "so as to turn the global village into a big stage for common development rather than an arena where gladiators fight each other".
China is North Korea's only ally and major trading partner, but has grown increasingly frustrated with North Korea's bellicosity.
Mr Xi did not name North Korea directly, but said that "no-one should be allowed to throw the region, or even the whole world, into chaos for selfish gains".…
ion - we trust that Glasgow is a home capital (for over 300 years) of this system challenge- of course that's partly because I know enough about how 6 generations have roots that connected around the world through Glasgow. Scots have tried for over 300 years to live freely from being colonised. With the French we literally coined the word entrepreneur - as the curriculum of how the peoples gtransform system when they find less than 1% are monoplising all the productive assets.
HOW DID WE COME INVOLVED WITH THIS INTERGENERATIONAL PUZZLE OF HUMAN RACE
Due to a banking scam just after 1700, our homeland was colonised by England in the misleadingly named "United Kingdom". So we became a majority Diaspora nation with over half of us living worldwide by 1843. People like Adam Smith published writings on the big questions loving parents and clans can ever ask - how to design systems that sustain better livelihoods for future generations of every creed , class , being starved or having plentiful access to capital?
At that time (1843) London was the number 1 lobbyist (anti-youth futures) capital in the world - so a scot went down to London. His goal to become an MP to sack lobbyists' MP. His medium for doing this The Economist. His goal to facilitate space in which citizens could severally question/test their leaders purposes.
Queen Victoria decided she would like a change from ruling over a constitution of slavery etc to open commonwealth world trade. She recruited James and his son-in law to edit that- testing out new banking systems out of Calcutta and London.
Culturally The Scots had one trustworthy advantage. In linking round the world they never invested in any arms apart from bagpipes. Before they were colonised they invested more in youth's education than anywhere in Europe- and Glasgow University can claim to be one of the 10 oldest universities still situated today where it always has been.
Ironically the future of Scottish youth is still npoorer than most neigbouring countries. We are stuck beacsue you need good timing to free yourself as a colony. And neither vthe rest of the Uk nor the Euroepan Union has shown any sustained interest in the Scottish curriculum of colaboratively designing better jobs for all your children's children
WE invite youth to report come on the future vapital interactions of Glasgow and across its neighbours at the following community-rising journalist sites
GrameenUK (how to innovate beyond conflicts with the auld enemy)
Grameen France how to win-win with Scotland's auld ally
GrameenGermany, GrameenBelgium, Grameen Europe - how to mediate with these 3 top-down conflict zones with all our youth's futures.
GrameenAsia - the most positive space to world trade win-wins with over the century 1975-20175
GrameenAmericas- the most difficult space to trade with as a youth entrepreneur equal
GrameenAfrica- well one branch of my family were free kirk missionaries -back in te day loving eg Nigerian peoples- basically they facilitated weekly meeting for communities to discuss what was on their herat without all the pompous trappings that other church networks sometines become engulfed in as priests deicded to lord over people instead of to serve them. The great mark for bench,ark for action learning this in my family was my 2 times great grandfather. Every Sunday the peoples of the isle of arran woul walk for upto 3 hours each way to sit in a circle and discuss what to do next given the Laird was sitting in his castle paying taxes to Londo designed round the short term accounting principle that out of Arran there was more tp profit each quarter out of sheep than people.
The great secret of Euroepan capitals is that they always used to use villages as their open social labs. Here's a vew pof London as it was progressively cultivate around those of James Wilson's mindset. Its true this takes a wacky joyful view in every way that evolutionary hubbub cant be planned from the top if you wish to citizens to energise communities worth youth and families growing up in. Remember before the transport infrastructures that spawned suburbs people (from teen up) mainly had to walk to work- you needed to be pretty rich to be horse drawn (though as London developed one of the greatest fears of the late 19th Century was the capital might suffocate in horse manure)Miraculously, the village in London now known as Saint James became a fun place to meet. At its boundary most popular of all - partly because it attracted civil engineers who need to be open system architects - was the "Royal Society of Arts". Walk about a mile West of the RSA and you would reach gardens and palace. Walk a mile east and provided you didnt get lost in Inns of Court you would reach mediation. (Fleet) Street. Walk north and you would hit the city's fresh produce market and theatres. Walk south and you would hit the Thames, and the aptly named railway station of Waterloo. Of course Queen Victoria was given her privacy - she could sit in her castle but know that all of this was being experimented with to her Near East.…
s leading youth technology wizards and collaboration NGO leaders
.Asian Sample Tour of Macrae's Curriculum of Entrepreneurial Revolution .. sample tour of Norman Macrae- 15 years into his career at The Economist, Normanis asked to sign his first survey
1962 Consider Japan:
his greatest debates on youth futures start in 1972 when he saw students experimenting with digital networks:
1972's Next 40 Years ;
1976's Coming Entrepreneurial Revolution;
I was very sorry to read in last week's "Economist" magazine of the death of Norman Macrae, who was its deputy editor for many years.
Norman Macrae was the first journalist to recognise the growing economic importance of Japan in the 1960s. His seminal essay "Consider Japan" (which can be read in the Norman Macrae archive) was published in September 1962, is a fascinating and powerful analysis of the Japanese economy at that time, and was an important corrective to those who still thought justin terms of Japan as a poor, developing country producing cheap counterfeit goods. The "Economist" obituary gives many other examples of Macrae's prescience and far-sightedness. The sudden jolt of recognition that Japan was about to become - as it had in the late 19th Century after the Meiji Restoration - an industrial giant (two years after "Consider Japan" the world woke up to Japan's success with the Tokyo Olympics) led directly to the British Government's trade promotion activities that I listed in my last article on the blog, the setting up in the early 1970s of the Exports to Japan Unit in the then Department of Trade, and the emphasis in this Embassy's work on trade and investment links with Japan,that lasts to this day. Do read the "Economist"'s obituary of Norman Macrae - it is a tribute to a massively influential thinker, whose impact is still felt today in the work we do here in Tokyo.…
nyone- if you see a big mistake or omission - tell us - we aim to be a learning guide
cities so far profiled : beijing hangzhou shanghai shenzen
two things that are special about chinese ca;pitaloism and truts in business leadership of 2020 are:
45 year earlier business didnt exist except state-owned-there's a freal ;problem with the english language- china no longer values what the english doctionary calls comunism while always being happiest seeing communitiesna d families thro=ive- if business can help with that then call it capiatlism orv whatever you like but china will grow it expoentillay until the average chiense is as wealthy as the average japanese - nand that means an economy at least 3 tome bigger than today- to want 2030 to be a workld in chich is not the bigest economy is totally unsustainableand nhot a good thing fir peopels koif any other country -see out 1977 first brief on preparing next generations of how extraordiunary worldwide collabiration needs to be if sustainabiliuty iof ours spoecies is what unites us all
2020 is the year president xi has set for ending poverty in china- the bigger a businss is the more kit is expecdetd to help with what it can linkin to that national goal- as well as being a brand thing that all ist tsakehiolders will audit it around, if it owns digiotal or othernmedia it knows the state can quickly penalise it (especially if it seeks to kfake corporate social responsibility)
we find that the chiense people dont admirfe bib business leaders lonlky for maing money- they expect that business leader to take real responsibility for regional development where she or he started up- in this way china maps cities a bit like england maps football clubs - thetre's a premeir leagu of about 20 supercities which inetract with sustainuing the workd's belts and riads as well as the nations goals - there are several other leagues; and nithing gets a bigget cheer than where youth suddenly network a whole cittyy's promotion up a league- when e say youthy we mean youth and their teachers- china's top briadcasters invetsigate education with an intensity no other nation does; it is obvuious that education systems all over tyhe world are yet fit for livelihoods of toadys uners 30s to alsi be the susrtainability generation- in china's case thus is a priblem inbvolving half a billion under 30's and because if the histirical oe chil piolicy- most grandparents saftey net depends most on whichever family member is graduating- yo have one youth not doing great work is a national shame- economiosts who mess tis up would kin china be sent to prison or at lesst retired to a vilage necver to h=be herad of again
President XI has a unique story
- he was in the fiusrt alumni of tsinghua during phase 2 of china celebrating big busienss- plahese 1 began in 1976- to get a big business licence you g=had to be poart of the diapora and bring a billion doilar inward investiment- many dispora wer happy to do this because duting the 3rd quarter of the 3=20th centiry they had been the east's infsratruictire builders and supoerport operators- this explains why since 1976 china has been mapping where f=dowe put port and riads with a logic the world has never seen before- when you listen to the head of the aiigb - a kind literary man- he suddnely gets very animated if you say infarstructire banking is about china tryinf to own the world-not at all he will tell you- when in 1980 i left china for first time toi a world bankl internemnt i saaw a telepohone that worked foir the first timje- in china of 1980 any messiage had to be hand delivered- so i value telphone infrastructut=[re even if you have never needed to.
nothikng could be worse than a world leader who says peoples dont need to be connecetd- the reality is since 1946 communicatiosn etch splend s hace=ve doubled every 7 years; thge kind of poverty that will result by saying some people dont need to be linked into mobile connectivity is not just life ending for thise peoples but most likely the end of sustaining ourv whole species
so you want want to read any more of this unless you accept that belt raid bimage=ineering eeds to be something every 5th grader qi=uizzes every teacher on- you dont need to have herad kif cjian to ask do we have access to ports tahat can exconomically shipnour produce to rest of the world- acriss the contuent we live on do small enterpriues trade flow freely or are their histiry's bodres in the way- imagibe bening a landlocked nation surrounded by hostile neighbours- how do ever develop trade when you are locked in like that- yet the stargnge way the world was colonised by a few empires fom 1500 led to world wars and then yes indepenence but with most unatiral boundaries drawn as empires habded ove =r the mess they had compiunded for centiuries but no world class solutions- mess starts with where peoples have eg no elecricity
what we want to do in thsi first tourg guide is to start to list some chinese cities where the biggest business person also takes some sort of responsibility for that region uniquely developing the whole of china's ssutainability and in the pricess as china is large in geograpghy and a fift h of thye workds peoiple- most other countries peopels can learn by replicating what china's bu=iggest busienssmen gave bac=k to human and societal development
lets start with president xi's place devlopment bio
instead of going to high school xi was sent to a remore vilage aged 16 but with a trunk full of school books- so he could both self-learn and see if the book's learning had any relevance to a remore rural area
he then enetred tsinghyua as one of ist irst alumni under the new vision that tsinghua needed to train party youth to be the future developers of china- either as regional developers or in taking a stae form and makeing it 10 tikmes more effective-
by 1988 we know that Xi had been despatched to spome riral priovinces adjacent to what we now think of as the megopolis of shanghai- back in 1988 shanghai was not what it wass tuday so these rural areas needed a lot of help- see jinping essays out ogf poverty dated from 1988 on
perhaps a decade later xi went back totsing=hua - hos docftirte was on how to sme rural marjets; soon he was back in the shanghai region bui=t indcreasing involved in connecting the city and its rural region, and then he ecame responsibke for the whole shnghai region - during which tiome china still had few annual summits with other nations so xi helped to start sco which turns out to to the greatest innovation west and nirth china's trading relatiuonshipo have ever seen- and from aboiut 2007 xi was told to start planning yoyth tejuvenetsion if he became president in 2012 - this is where it was lucky for the world that jack ma was part of the region xi knoew well
hence in the list of china's syoersustainability cities - we have
hangzhou enhetreing as 4th -help us blog why at alibabauni.com (note many twin cities of jack ma tokyo olympics geneva (wef idustrial reviokutiin u=4 , unctad gkobakbusienss school curriculum), malaysia forst test of EWTP
buenos au=ires continuing g20 reasrch jack ma launched 2015-2016 preeping for chuina g20, torintio favortite connectir of g20 and gateway17.com, various cities contributing to jack ma's 15 billion doalsr researcf of futures institite DAMO, nairobi epicentre of unhabita with ist new in 2018 excetive directir former efmale mayir if penang (who is in chnarge of UN rankings of suoer-habitacities
less surprising beijing (epicentres of worldwide youthb exhcnges include 1 .. youth media invited to BRI asummits next one beijing april 2018.)
Beijing universities have a unique roe in China- they are maoinly expecetd to colaborate with other suoercities so that world calss idea are distributed equally- the 3 universities that appear ti have this role generally are:
- theye are all ijn tghe same usburg which is alsio the biggest engtrepreneuruial hub in the wolrd where chiene busienss men with purpose meet other nations leaaders - a club chaired by jack ma
all of tehs euniversituies have close connectioins wuith china's tp 50 thinktanks- they all send people to be regularly interviewed by the main chuense briadcaster cgtn- however in chuna academic gurus are largely despised- you are supposed to use your authority the universities have created for you for the greater good- largely speaking chiense studnets are nit caught in student loan traps- when you understand family delpendence on their one graduate age member- this becomes clear as a nation wide demand
one of the possible exceptions to this is an international busienss school run out of beijing but sponsiored by hong kongs rochest businesmna ckgsb-= however this targets training people who are altready making money in busienss
shanghai (the world's biggest port), where glpbal comoaneis are encouraged ti have hq in chna, hime of new devlopment abnk and sco and blending east and west profesions--, and
shenzen (the city that now landbridges the hwole of hong kong with the Guanngdo=hou region) - just as hangzhou has the digitally inovative jack m , shenzhen has the digital wuizard pony ma of tencent
TIANJIN AND Dalian are the two cities sharing hosting of sumer world economicf forum- wef main twin localities include its hq geneva with davos the mountain where winter wef has always been- tokyo and san francisco the fiorst 2 hubs of indistrial brevolution 4
if we are correct the reserach you need to do is of china's biggest busiensmen, where they are located, and which ones join in sustainabilouty events internal belt riads; also look out for wherever a place is newly annonced as a special economic zone- some are particulat to sisyter city fredships where a dveloing nation has entrered into a pivotyal belr =[t raid strategic partershipn- there arre up to 65 such antions- one space to monitir what is happening is the Silk Road Chamber of INTl Commerce
XIAN with kong kong shares connectivity networking of the the SRCIC which offers massive cutural connections too as can be seen from this short summary
SRCIC has so far set up eight professional committees of trade, finance, culture, transportation, energy, information, industrial parks, and standard and brand, five alliances of Silk Road Urban Alliance, Silk Road Enterprise Development Alliance, Belt and Road Association Alliance, Silk Road International Museum Alliance, and Silk Road Think Tank Alliance, and six sub-organizations including www.eSilkRoad.com, Silk Road International Development Fund, Silk Road Cultural Park, Silk Road International Commodity Exchanges, Silk Road Transnational Financial Leasing Alliance, and International Artwork Trading Center as platforms for pragmatic cooperation among its members. SRCIC holds the Silk Road spirit of peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit, and the principle of achieving shared growth through discussion and collaboration to contribute to the building of a global community with a shared future. Promoting business and cultural exchange for a win-win outcome is the goal and mission for SRCIC in this new historical era. SRCIC has its headquarters based in Hong Kong, its Secretariat in Xi'an, and its representative offices in both Beijing and Shanghai.…
Bora Banking End Slum Youth Community Regeneration
For those who value the microeconomics hypothesis that a place can only sustain growth across generations if capital (community banking) structures family savings to invest in next generation's productivity, Jamii Bora is the benchmark model for urban contexts. Its emergence at the time when it was first possible to digitalise all the record keeping of banking put Kenya in the worldwide vanguard of all banking models that leveraged digital age's 10 to 100 times lower cost and higher quality customer transaction systems. And led to Kenya's ihub a model incubation space for open sourcing digital world trade apps incubated by a nation's wizard youth technologists.
PEER TO PEER APPRENTICE NETWORKS
What bangladesh had linked round circles of village mothers, jb started linking in round youth teams (some literally former gangs); soon the laddered approach started being translated by brac in africa particularly to girl effect networks eg all girls who wanted to start a small haircutting busienss
In terms of global job-creating structures, when George Soros says the subprime and other meltdowns of global banking systems require rethinking of economics from bottom-up, these 2 contributions to the purpose citizens need to demand of economics and financial markets offered immediately prior to Obama's inauguration are pivotal:
The culture of Jamii Bora (Happy families identity) emerged from the most positive family sprit of foster mothers and orphans confronted by the extreme innovation challenge of slums surrounding Nairobi. Just as an Indian street orphanage has become the epicentre of the most relevant worldwide financial literacy programs in primary schools, Jamii bora offers lessons for all 21st C youth entrepreneur curricula from age 11 up.
10 times lower cost of mobile loans/savings transactions
Laddered Loan Amount
Peer youth trust- end gangs
Jamii Bora and family health insurance and wellbeing programs
Jamii Bora and Green Urban Regenarion
Benchmark for pro-youth banking revolutions
World First Mpesa -consequences worldwide cashless banking models reach brac and global banks with values
World First Nanocredit -consequences opportunities of mobile billionnaires to lead greats social valuation innovations (eg women4empowerment)
African world first Kiva (Zip) (pper to peer lending modesl also change student direct connections)
Netgen Benchmark for youth direct world trade
World Benchmark IHUB
Ushahidi software of IHUB
Acumen Gravity of Patient Capital
Death of distance Life's greatest app labs
Africa's first satellite's apps -from disaster prevention to elearning
First mobile billionaire invests in Public servant leadership - cf pope and jim kim count on me
Africa24tv - takes on most purposeful role of broadcast tv -
Openedu greatest value multipliers local-global
Bridging Literacy Education -Bridges Academy
Orphans as world class developers of financial literacy curriculum -link India's aflatoun
Ihub natural link of 1 coding khan-ac, 2 missing mooc, 3 branch partner of free university curricula
Twin ends purposeful value exchanges- 10-win p*d
US=AF disapora development value chains
Blessed coffee cooperative servants
Sister city mayors aa - elearning tablet
4 hemisphere open source youth
African at ITU bridge to women4empowerment
African millennials at epicentre of un millenial goals
African millennials at epicentre of (jim kim) 2 defining social movements of netgen
out of safrica
the curricula and the uni model and first partners
the world leading community example and connection with peace revolution (gandhi mandela-elder)
different emphasis when edu liberates value exchange transformation than when banking does
conequence of education as number 1 banker of microfrancises and nation's postion in above zero sum worldwide trade…
gateway to bangladesh, india and china was too good for Norman not to want to celebrate it with its author Dr Muhammad Yunus. This Norman did in his last public birthday party with 40 Londoners and Dr Yunus at the Royal Automobile Club London Saint James 2008, by sponsoring 2000 yout book club and 10000 youth dvd club of dr yunus, and bequeathing funds for Glasgow Interdepenece Day and 70th birthday wish weekend with Dr Yunus 4 July 2010. Norman's last article is circulated in the consider banagldesh pamhoplet used at his remberance parties and we welcome similarly bold yout colaboration ideas at www.considerbangladesh.com
Norman loved cox' bazaar as he spent his last year as a teenager navigatinfg raf planes over this port - and noted how efficiently its infrastructure started being developed by the Americans compared with Chittagong which the Brits were responsible for developing during the world war 2 . Norman's viewpoints on peace as biggest economics compass of starting up 21st C are here.…
BRI.school ENTREPRENEURIAL REVOLUTION NETWORK BENCHMARKS 2025now : Remembering Norman Macrae
how do humans design futures- to be or not t be/ we now know how-a man made system - learn from deming or keynes, or glasgow university alumni smith and 200 years of hi-trust economics mapmaking later fazle aded - is defined by one goal uniting generations- a system multiplies connected peoples work and demands either accelerating progress to its goal or collapsing - sir fazle abed died dec 2020 - so who are his mot active scholars networks empowering youth with his knohow - soros with jim kim paul farmer leon botstein and with particular contexts- girls village development and with ba-ki moon global climate adapability where cop26 november will be a great chance to renuite with 260 years of adam smith and james watts purposes there is no point in connecting with this ning unless you want to end poverty-specifically we interpret sdg 1 as meaning bext girl or boy born has fair chance at free happy anf productive lidfe as we seek to make any community a child is born into a thriving space to grow up between dicover of new worlds in 1500 and 1945 systems got worse and worse on the goal eg processes like slavery emerged- and ulimately the world was designed around a handful of big empires and often only the most powerful men in those empires. 4 amazing human-tech systems were invented to start massive use by 1960 borlaug agriculture and related solutionsevery poorest village (2/3people still had no acceess to electricity) could action lear person to person- deming engineering whhose goal was zero sedects and alowed thousans od small suppliers to be best at one part in machines assembled from all those parts) -although americans invented these solution asia most needed them and joyfully became world class at them- up to 2 billion people were helped to end poverty through sharing this knowhow- unlike consuming up things actionable knowhow multiplies value in use when it links through every community that needs it the other two technologies space and media and satellite telecoms, and digital analytic power looked promising- by 1965 alumni of moore promised to multiply 100 fold efficiency of these core tech eaxh decade to 2030- that woul b a trillion tmes moore than was needed to kand on the moon in 1960s. you might think this tech could improce race to end poverty- and initially it did but it was designed around the long term goal of making 10 men richer than 40% poorest- these men also got involved in complexvested interests so that the vast majority of politicians in brussels and dc backed th big ge bigger - often they used fake media to hide what they were doing to climate andother stuff that a world trebling in population size drom 1945 to 2030 also needed to map. so the goog and bad news is we the people need to reapply all techs where they are only servibg rich men and politicians od every party who have taken us to the brink of ending our species- these are the most exciting times to be alive - we the 3 geneartions children parebts grandparents have ubtil 2030 to design new system orbits graviated aoubnd goal 1 and navigatibg the un's other 17 goals - do you want to help/ 8 cities we spend most time helping students exchange sustainability solutions 2018-2019 BR0 Beijing Hangzhou: BR6 Geneva, Luxembourg, BR2 Dhaka, Delhi, BR1 Tokyo, Seoul
Map with Belt Road Imagineers :where do you want to partner in sustaining world
Dad (Norman Macrae) created the genre Entrepreneurial Revolution to debate how to make the net generation the most productive and collaborative . We had first participated in computer assisted learning experiments in 1972. Welcome to more than 40 years of linking pro-youth economics networks- debating can the internet be the smartest media our species has ever collaborated around?
Foundation Norman Macrae- The Economist's Pro-Youth Economist
5801 Nicholson Lane Suite 404RockvilleMD20852 tel 301 881 1655 email firstname.lastname@example.org
2013 = 170th Year of The Economist being Founded to End Hunger
2010s = Worldwide Youth's most productive and collaborative decade
1972: Norman Macrae starts up Entrepreneurial Revolution debates in The Economist. Will we the peoples be in time to change 20th C largest system designs and make 2010s worldwide youth's most productive time? or will we go global in a way that ends sustainability of ever more villages/communities? Drayton was inspired by this genre to coin social entrepreneur in 1978 ,,continue the futures debate here
world favorite moocs-40th annual top 10 league table