microeducate and microfranchise 3 billion jobs

Norman Macrae -The Economist pro-youth economist -bravo sir fazle abed & jack ma

Curriculum from Soros alumn of Soros inet curriculum of rethinking economics 

inet team members of Soros include

..Soros other pro-youth system mapping networks include:

Open society laureates over last 20 years

Budapest central European University

Original loan to Bangladesh village mothers to end digital divides with mobile phones - collaboration model version 1 from 1996: 150,000 village centre hub network of 60 poorest mothers per value exchange


first coursera partner of inet : Mehrling Barnard College Columbia University

1 The Money Curriculum

Economics of Money and Banking with Perry Mehrling - YouTube

Aug 30, 2013 - Uploaded by INETeconomics
Sign up at ... Watch Later George Soros: Challenging the FoundationINETeconomics19,344 views; 5:50

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This course offers an introduction to a “money view” of economic activity for modern times, building on the intellectual traditions of British central banking and American institutionalism. Part One explores the economics of payment systems and money markets. Part Two explores connections with foreign exchange and capital markets.  The present session is Part One; Part Two will start one week after Part One finishes.  My recent book The New Lombard Street:  How the Fed became the Dealer of Last Resort can be read as an example of how the money view helps understand the evolution of the role of central banking from the origin of the Fed to the most recent crisis.  (The link takes you to a Princeton Press page where you can view pdf of the book for free, and order a discount price copy.)

The course is six weeks long, with a final exam in the seventh week.  Each week there are two lectures, one reading with associated guide questions, and one quiz that assesses your understanding of the material for that week (except that the first week has no quiz).  Readings and lecture notes for the entire course are visible throughout the course, but the video lectures are released one week at a time in order to encourage you to proceed at the same pace as the rest of the class.  The idea is to facilitate discussion. 

In my experience, learning about money is much like learning a language.  There is a special vocabulary and a special grammar that practitioners use to talk among themselves, and if you want to join the conversation or even just lurk in the background and listen, then you have to learn the language.  Like learning any language, immersion is really the best way.  You need to surround yourself with expert speakers and try to figure out what they are saying.  For this purpose, I have recruited a team of Community TAs--graduate students, practitioners, even some postdocs--to monitor the discussion forums, and talk with you.  Typically the TAs are not yet expert speakers themselves yet, so I am talking with them at the same time.  I will also be producing a weekly video analyzing some article in the Financial Times, which is where you can find abundant examples of the native speech.  And of course I encourage you to talk with each other, trying out this new language for yourselves.

Week 1.  Introduction (Sept 1-7)
     Lec 1:  The Four Prices of Money 
     Lec 2:  The Natural Hierarchy of Money 
     Reading:  Allyn Young 
     No Homework

Week 2.  Introduction, continued (Sept 8-14)
     Lec 3:  Money and the State:  Domestic 
     Lec 4:  The Money View, Macro and Micro 
     Reading:  Hyman Minsky 
     Homework, due Sept 15:  Quiz 1 

Week 3.  Banking as a Clearing System (Sept 15-21)      
     Lec 5:  The Central Bank as a Clearinghouse 
     Lec 6:  Federal Funds, Final Settlement 
     Reading:  Charles Dunbar 
     Homework, due Sept 22:  Quiz 2

Week 4.  Banking as a Clearing System, continued (Sept 22-28)  
     Lec 7:  Repos, Postponing Settlement 
     Lec 8:  Eurodollars, Parallel Settlement 
     Reading:  Walter Bagehot  
     Homework, due Sept 29:  Quiz 3

Week 5.  Banking as Market Making (Sept 29-Oct 5) 
     Lec 9:  The World that Bagehot Knew 
     Lec 10:  Dealers and Liquid Security Markets 
     Reading:  John Hicks 
     Homework, due Oct 6:  Quiz 4

Week 6.  Banking as Market Making, continued (Oct 6-12)  
     Lec 11:  Banks and the Market for Liquidity 
     Lec 12:  Lender/Dealer of Last Resort 
     Reading:  Jack Treynor 
     Homework, due Oct 13:  Quiz 5

Week 7.  Review and Exam (Oct 13-19) 
     Lec Review 
     Final Exam, due Oct 20.

There is no reason to trust social entrepreneurs as changemakers unless they collaborate with the few economists who dare to be changemakers


help us edit our 12th anniversary script of the world woke up to the man's greatest risk being discrepancies in incomes and expectations of rich and poor nations - a map first researched out of The Economist between 1972-1984 the time when global village networking could be debated before the rush to implenet


Robert Johnson


Nicholas Alpha
Creative Manager

Marshall Auerback
Director of Institutional Partnerships

Jill Blackford
Grants Manager

Lynette Cruz
Executive Assistant

Thomas Ferguson
Director of Research Projects

JD Jasper
Development Coordinator

Arjun Jayadev

Nick Johnson
Staff Editor

Matt Kulvicki
Director of Film and Video

Perry Mehrling
Director of Education Programs

Daniel H. Neilson

Enno Schröder

Christopher Sealey
Chief Operating Officer

Karen Spring
Director of Development

Jason Shure
Chief Financial Officer

Adair Turner
Senior Fellow

Eric Weiner
Senior Editor and Director of Communications



What is the scope of George Soros’s philanthropy? 

The magnitude and geographical scope of Soros’s charitable activities are unprecedented. A list of his philanthropic activities on his foundation’s Web site spans 500 pages. They provide the most comprehensive overview of his giving and may be accessed here.

Why did Soros establish the Open Society Foundations? 

"When I had made more money than I needed for myself and my family, I set up a foundation to promote the values and principles of a free and open society," George Soros has said. 

What is an “open society”?

An open society is a society based on the recognition that nobody has a monopoly on the truth, that different people have different views and interests, and that there is a need for institutions to protect the rights of all people to allow them to live together in peace. Broadly speaking, an open society is characterized by a reliance on the rule of law, the existence of a democratically elected government, a diverse and vigorous civil society, and respect for minorities and minority opinions.

The term “open society” was popularized by the philosopher Karl Popper in his 1945 book Open Society and Its Enemies. Popper's work deeply influenced George Soros and it is upon the concept of an open society that Soros bases his philanthropic activity.

When did Soros become active as a philanthropist? 

Soros began his philanthropic activity in 1979 when he provided scholarships for black students to attend Capetown University in apartheid South Africa. The Open Society Foundations were established by George Soros in 1984. 

What are the annual expenditures of the Open Society Foundations? 

Total expenditures by the Open Society Foundations currently average approximately $500 million a year.

In what countries do the Open Society Foundations operate?

The Open Society Foundations are active in more than 60 countries around the world.

How much has Soros donated? 

To date he has given more than $7 billion. 

What are examples of Open Society Foundations activities? 

The Open Society Foundations fund a range of initiatives around the world to advance justice, education, public health, business development and independent media. 

A representative sampling of the activities of the Open Society Foundations includes: 

Making a $100 million grant to Human Rights Watch. 

Responding to devastating flooding in Pakistan by giving a $5 million emergency grant to provide food, clean water, shelter and medical supplies for those in the affected region. 

Institutionalizing free after-school programs in New York City through the After-School Corp, which has transformed the way such programs are funded. The Open Society Foundations have provided more than $100 million for this project. 

Awarding $11 million in grants to support New York City arts organizations and educational arts initiatives hard hit by the financial crisis. 

Contributing $50 million to the Millennium Villages initiative, which seeks to lift some of the least developed villages in Africa out of poverty and into self-sustainability. 

Creating a foundation in Hungary to support culture and education and facilitate the country’s transition to democracy. (One early action entailed importing photocopy machines that allowed citizens and activists in Hungary to spread information and publish censored materials.) 

Funding the underground Solidarity movement in Poland. 

Assisting the Soviet physicist-dissident and human rights activist Andrei Sakharov, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975. 

Contributing $100 million toward providing Internet access to every regional university in Russia.

Donating $50 million to help the citizens of Sarajevo endure the city’s siege during the Bosnian war, funding among other projects a water-filtration plant that allowed residents to avoid drawing water from distribution points targeted by Serb snipers.

Providing palliative care to the dying. In Armenia, with the support of the Foundations' International Palliative Care Initiative, the government made end-of-life care an official health care service, allowing death with dignity to those suffering from terminal illness. In Georgia, the Foundations joined with lawyers to provide child care and free legal assistance in estate planning to palliative care patients and their families. The Foundations are also a supporter of the European Palliative Care Research Centre at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

Winning release for prisoners held without legal grounds in penitentiaries in Nigeria.

Helping halt the spread of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS by joining with global and community-based organizations and activists in Europe and Asia to obtain funding for needle exchange programs and other HIV-related services.  

Helping resource-rich countries establish mechanisms to manage their revenues in a way that promotes economic growth and good governance rather than poverty and instability.

Prompting the Kenyan government to acknowledge and address shortages of medicines in public pharmacies. The Foundations activists in Kenya used text messaging to immediately report inventory shortfalls of ten essential medicines. 

Launching a kindergarten curriculum for deaf children in Mongolia. 

Collaborating with the Margaret Mead Traveling Film Festival to support documentary filmmakers in the Caucasus and Central Asia. Through its Arts and Culture Program, the Foundations present filmmaking workshops and encourages documentary filmmakers to submit films to the Mead Film Festival in New York. 

Contributing $35 million to Back to School New York, a state and federal program providing funds to low-income families for the purchase of school supplies. 

Providing safety training for journalists and supporting independent media in Pakistan. 

Leading a solidarity mission of African feminists to the Democratic Republic of the Congo to support women in that country facing sexual violence, poverty and HIV/AIDS. 

Inducing major retailers in Europe and the United States to demand that Uzbekistan stop using child labor to harvest cotton, a crop that generates export revenues of nearly $1 billion for that country's government. 

Awarding a grant to Costa Rica's EARTH University to fund a four-year program of study for Haitian and African students. At EARTH, a private, nonprofit institution focusing on entrepreneurial agriculture, OSI scholars study for a bachelor of science degree in agronomy and gain land-use expertise applicable to their home countries. 

Supporting development of a radio network and news syndication system in Nepal. 

Establishing the Campaign for Quality Education in Pakistan to advance values such as creative and critical thinking, tolerance and social responsibility. 

Sponsoring research on environmental degradation and promoting progressive development in Turkmenistan. 

Reforming suspension and expulsion practices and drafting a new code of student conduct for Baltimore's poorly performing schools. 

Helping human rights activists in the West Bank monitor treatment of Palestinian civilians by Israeli troops at security checkpoints. 

Producing a guide to inclusive educational practices for special needs children in Serbia. 

Integrating legal services into HIV prevention and treatment programs in East Africa to protect the rights of those living with AIDS against traditional authorities who may be ignorant of or unwilling to apply the law in cases involving people with HIV/AIDS. 

Launching the Neighborhood Stabilization Initiative in New York to fund counseling and legal assistance in response to the subprime lending and foreclosure crisis. 

Supporting a review of education policies for special needs children in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan, publicizing the findings of the review, and funding projects for community-based services for these children. 

Funding the National Geographic Society's All Roads Photography Program for local artists photographing their home countries. All Roads grantees are mentored through meetings with photo agencies, publishers and NGOs, and their work is curated by the National Geographic Society for international exhibition. 

Launching the Campaign for Black Male Achievement to reverse the exclusion of African American males from full participation in U.S. cultural, economic and political life. 

Combating "brain drain" in South Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union and Mongolia by supporting returning scholars who, having earned postgraduate degrees abroad, seek university positions in their home countries. 

Financing advocacy efforts for passage of freedom of information legislation in Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. 

Operating EurasiaNet, a Web site that offers news and analysis of developments in Central Asia and the Caucasus. English and Russian language versions of EurasiaNet aim to inform policy decision makers as well as the general public about issues in the region. 

Awarding $4.8 million in grants to organizations across the United States that advocate for improved access to alcohol and drug addiction treatment. 

Preparing a manual for community groups in Kenya to use at the grassroots level to monitor local development funds. By conducting budget monitoring, community organizations can reduce incidents of corruption and misuse of finances. 

Recognizing the achievements of European Muslim women and raising awareness of the contributions of Muslim women to European life by sponsoring the European Muslim Women of Influence List. 

Prompting changes in Turkey's treatment of mentally disabled people. Patients have more access to outdoor activities and better hospital food, and the use of electroshock therapy without anesthesia is banned. 

Launching a Web site to cover the trial of Thomas Lubanga, charged with conscripting child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 

Mobilizing opposition to U.S.-sponsored torture during the Bush administration. 

Sponsoring photojournalism workshops for youths in the Middle East and North Africa in which students learn to tell their stories through photography, using simple digital cameras and open-source software. 

Joining with 40 international groups and experts from around the world to issue a call to action urging governments to reform ineffective and harmful drug policies. The Foundations advocate a drug policy based on scientific and medical research, not politics, that promotes humane treatment of drug users and reduces drug-related violence and health risks. 

Awarding grants to Ugandan youths ages 19 to 29 to mobilize their peers and other civil society groups in community-based projects to improve public life. 

Increasing public access to statutory and case law in Southern Africa. The Foundations are working with legal information institutes to develop an infrastructure through which the body of law is collected by governments, courts and bar associations, and made freely available to the public in 16 countries across the region. 

Supporting the Belgrade Open School in Serbia, an alternative school that incorporates multidisciplinary courses and interactive teaching methods in its curriculum. 

Advising developing countries in negotiating migration agreements with developed countries to ensure the protection of migrants' human rights and freedom of movement, and the transparency and accountability of the agreements.

 Hosting the OSI Youth Initiative global meeting, which provided an opportunity for leaders from various youth organizations to discuss their efforts to shape public life in their communities. 


Programs & Initiatives

AfriMAP works with national partners and civil society groups to compile systematic country reports on governance issues, using a framework linking respect for human rights to progress in development.

Through grants and exhibitions, the Documentary Photography Project supports photography to engage and mobilize people around issues of justice and human rights.

The Open Society Early Childhood Program promotes the healthy development of young children through parent and community engagement, professional development, and government accountability.

The Education Support Program helps marginalized communities gain access to the skills and critical thinking that prepare them to actively engage in open societies.

The Eurasia Program is advanced through grantmaking, advocacy and research, regional initiatives, and close engagement with local Open Society foundations.

The Fiscal Governance Program works to ensure that public resources are used efficiently, effectively, and accountably to benefit those who need them most.

Prohibition-based policies have led to a rise in drug-related violence, prison overcrowding, and an increase in HIV epidemics. The Global Drug Policy Program supports organizations that put forward alternatives.

The Human Rights Initiative helps ensure that people can exercise their rights and seek redress for violations by supporting the strength and vitality of the global human rights movement.

The Program on Independent Journalism enables independent media to deliver quality content for the public good by promoting freedom of expression, professional and ethical standards, watchdog journalism, and diverse voices.

The Information Program works to increase access to knowledge, empower civil society groups, and protect civil liberties in the digital environment.

The International Higher Education Support Program nurtures capacity and leadership at universities to enable well-informed, vigorous social deliberation.

The International Migration Initiative seeks to address systemic exploitation, discrimination, and violence against migrants at every stage of their journey.
Through grantmaking and advocacy efforts, the Latin America Program supports the work of civil society organizations and their constructive engagement in the development, implementation, and oversight of public policies.

Making the Most of EU Funds for Roma seeks to create a critical mass of concerned actors at all levels who keep Roma inclusion high on the policy agenda.

The New Executives Fund provides key support to new nonprofit heads to help organizations navigate leadership transitions.

The Open Society Fellowship selects leading practitioners in journalism, advocacy, public policy, academia, and the arts who are able to engage productively with the Foundations.

The Open Society Internship for Rights and Governance supports students from selected top graduate-level programs to work at the intersection of public policy, advocacy, and human rights.

Through litigation, advocacy, research, and technical assistance, the Open Society Justice Initiative promotes human rights and builds legal capacity for open societies.

The Open Society Presidential Fellowship is awarded yearly to recent graduates from law, public policy, and business schools.

The Public Health Program works to strengthen the capacity of marginalized populations to advocate for better health policies and practices. We also push for greater government accountability in health care.

The Regional Policy Initiative on Afghanistan & Pakistan provides targeted, expert research and advocacy support to address the unique challenges to open society values arising from conflict and insecurity in the region.

The Roma Initiatives Office provides grants, fellowships, and training to stimulate Roma community participation and active citizenship, empower Roma women and youth, and combat anti-Roma discrimination.

The Open Society Scholarship Programs aim to promote critical thinking, free and open intellectual inquiry, and cross-cultural tolerance and respect.

The Soros Economic Development Fund supports economic development in post-conflict countries and in nations transitioning to democracy by investing in the financial services, agribusiness, and logistics sectors.

The Think Tank Fund supports democratic processes through grantmaking; research projects to improve governance and tackle intolerance; and a variety of fellowship, internship, and peer exchange opportunities.

U.S. Programs supports efforts to advance equality, fairness, and justice with a focus on the most vulnerable and marginalized communities and the most significant threats to open society in the United States today.

Through grantmaking and advocacy, the Women’s Rights Program supports efforts to reduce discrimination and violence against women, strengthen access to justice, and promote women’s empowerment.

Contact Us

Open Society Foundations
224 West 57th Street
New York, NY 10019
United States

Connect with Us

Follow the Open Society Foundations.


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8 cities we spend most time helping students exchange sustainability solutions 2018-2019 BR0 Beijing Hangzhou: BR6 Geneva, Luxembourg, BR2 Dhaka, Delhi, BR1 Tokyo, Seoul

Map with Belt Road Imagineers :where do you want to partner in sustaining world

Our search for top 50 World Record Jobs Creators begins with E1 Xi Jinping - World's Number 1 Job Creator - Peoples Global2.0 

Girls world maps begin at B01 Bangladesh economical miracle of 15 million poorest village mothers grasssroots networking -good news reporting with and and


online library of norman macrae--


correspondence welcomed on 50 year curriculum of Entrepreneurial Revolution and net generation as most productive time to be alive -

MA1 AliBaba TaoBao

Ma 2 Ali Financial

Ma10.1 DT and ODPS

health catalogue; energy catalogue

Keynes: 2025now - jobs Creating Gen


how poorest women in world build

A01 BRAC health system,

A02 BRAC education system,

A03 BRAC banking system

K01 Twin Health System - Haiti& Boston

K02 Twin YouthWorldBanking: Haiti& Bkash (BRAC)

K03 Twin Open Society : Budapest-Rome - Economists and Peace Champions

A04 Africa & Asia's 5 Billion Peoples eleraning satellite Yazmi

A05 Triplet Open Apps Media Labs of Ethiopia and MIT and Ma-Lee (worldwide China)

Job creation case Y01 Foundation of Grameen Bank- good news in association with
Ma 10,2 grameen inteldt

Ma 10.3 IHUB/Usha Kenya DT

Ma 10.4 Kenya nanocredit

Ma 10.5 MIT top ten mobile app labs of open tech

Ma 10.6 berners lee www

KMAS1 Kimchoices KMAS1.1 Ki-Moon KMAS1.2 Sun F Yang Lan

W4E1 telecentres for girls jobs

W4E2 womens nanocredit










MEDIALABNegropronte > Yazmi


AFM00 Samara and AfricaStar and Yazmi
AFM10 IHUB/Ushahidi
AFM11 MIT Media Lab Africa
AFM12 MIT D-lab and Abdul Latif with Toyota
AFM121 Polak last mile multinationals africa –eg green energy and clean water distrib
AFM13 Ibrahim Foundation
AFM14 Africa24tv
TB1 Free University and Jobs Schools
TB11 Open Learning Campus Africa
AFM15 Young Africa Society –world bank ypa milennials’ goals 2.1
AFM2 Jamii Bora –end slums youth banking and partner labs
TB20 Primary financial literacy curriculum – eg Afaatoun out of Orphanages
AFM21 Bridges primary schools
TB21 Love of self- empowerment curriculum – eg Maharishi (TB1)
TB22 Coding curricula from primary up
AFM31 Kiva Africa
AFM32 Acumen
AFM33 BRAC African Girl Jobs-creating banking
AFM34 Eagri-Africa
AFM35 African health millennials www –and PIH Rwanda, Free Nursing College Africa
AFM36 Mara Foundation
AFM5 Nanocredit
AFM6 USADBC - diaspora association benchmarking african food security value chains
AFM61 –diaspora multi-country celebrations eg AfricaTip (AgeTip)
AFM612 Makerfaireafrica
BOM1 berners lee
BOM2 mit every students an entrepreneur
BOM21 MIT100k
BOM3 mit media lab -open source wizard entrepreneurs and new commons
BOM30 Negroponte $100 Laptop
BOM31 Joi Ito
BOM32 reclaim our learning
BOM4 MIT open education movement
BOM5 Legatum
BO51 Legatum millennials and fans
BOM52 networks of cashless banking technolgists
BOM53 innovations journal
BOM6 partners in health/brigham womens hospital
BOM61 value chain networks club inspired by pih and world bank millenials
BOM62 ypchronic
BOM64 Haiti training hospital - connector of neraly free nursing college
BOSF1 Kiva and puddle
BOSF2 Khan Academy
BOSF3 Coursera segment interested in Open Learning Campus

communications and community banking links series 1 and 2

Out of The Economist since 1972 Macrae's viewpoint Entrepreneurial Revolution argues that the net generation can make tremendous human progress if and only if educators, economists and all who make the biggest resource integrate youth job creating into the way their worldwide purpose and impact is valued join in ... 43rd Entrepreneurial Revolution Youth Networks Celebration..

job creation survey

discuss valuation video

Norman Macrae Foundation


Wash DC tel 1 301 881 1655




For how many of The Economist's first 175 years was it the most effective mediator of sustainability exponentials of humanity all over the planet


best million-youth moocs hosted by economists


discuss valuation video

hottest youth-spring question of our life and times-can online education end youth unemployment for ever ? yes but only if you help map how!

moocyunus launches youtube competition -what would purpose of youth's favorite free online university be?

join blog of moocyunus


 The Economist- when first seeing youth experiment with digital networks in 1972,

Season's most urgent collaboration debates:

next 100 million jobs nursing

42nd year of 7 wonders if thinkpad of The Economist's genre of Entrepreneurial Revoution

40 years of notes from archives of entrepreneurial revolution 1-7 a...


help catalogue top 100 microfranchises


help catalogue 100 short videos on right old muddle of anti-youth economists..

Dad (Norman Macrae) created the genre Entrepreneurial Revolution  to debate how to make the net generation the most productive and collaborative . We had first participated in computer assisted learning experiments in 1972. Welcome to more than 40 years of linking pro-youth economics networks- debating can the internet be the smartest media our species has ever collaborated around?

Foundation Norman Macrae- The Economist's Pro-Youth Economist

5801 Nicholson Lane Suite 404 Rockville MD 20852   tel 301 881 1655 email

Main Project webs including as lead open education partner of mandela elders and branson

2013 = 170th Year of The Economist being Founded to End Hunger

2010s = Worldwide Youth's most productive and collaborative decade

 1972: Norman Macrae starts up Entrepreneurial Revolution debates in The Economist. Will we the peoples be in time to change 20th C largest system designs and make 2010s worldwide youth's most productive time? or will we go global in a way that ends sustainability of ever more villages/communities? Drayton was inspired by this genre to coin social entrepreneur in 1978 ,,continue the futures debate here

world favorite moocs-40th annual top 10 league table

  • 1) e-ME
  • 2) 8 week tour of grameen curriculum and uniting human race to poverty museums
  • 3) 8 week tour of brac curriculum and mapping microeducation summit for post 2015 milennium goals

send votes to , Macrae Foundation

  • 4) 8 week tour of africa's free university and entrepreneurial slums
  • 5 what to do now for green energy to save the world in time
  • 6 nurses as 21st world's favorite information grassroots networkers and most economical cheerleaders more



  • 7 how food security as a mising curricululum of middle schools can co-create more jobs than any nation can dream of
  • 8 pro-youth economics and public servants
  • 9 celebrating china as number 1 creditor nation
  • 10 questions worldwide youth are asking about what was true last decade but false this decade because that's what living in the most innovative era means

archives at The Economist


Number 1 in Economics for Youth

The unacknowledged giantcelebrate unacknowledged giant

dannyboyle chrispatten butler-sloss marianowak tomhunter MYunusgeorgesoros bernerslee michael palin

Timeless ER from The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant (aka dad Norman Macrae) A  b  c ;;1997 a;;; 1983 a ;;;1976 a b;;; 1972 a ;;; 1962 a 1956 a - correspndence with optimistic rationalists always welcome -


from please help in 2 ways -nomination of collaboration 100; testify to world's largest public broadcasters such as BBCthat this survey needs their mediation now

Intercapital searches for replicable youth eonomic franchise



10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Brussels Poland
London-Glasgow Nordica: S D N
Spain .Kenya
Brazil Joburg



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