chinathanks.com microeducate and microfranchise 3 billion jobs

Norman Macrae -The Economist pro-youth economist -bravo sir fazle abed & jack ma

sustainable business hitchhikers guide to china 2020

like all guides this is intended to be a popularsimplification- if you have never been to china but want to partner in sustainable business what do you need to see first- we are not trying to offend anyone- if you see a big mistake or omission - tell us - we aim to be a learning guide

cities so far profiled : beijing hangzhou shanghai shenzen

two things that are special about chinese ca;pitaloism and truts in business leadership of 2020 are:

45 year earlier business didnt exist except state-owned-there's a freal ;problem with the english language- china no longer values what the english doctionary calls comunism while always being happiest seeing communitiesna d families thro=ive- if business can help with that then call it capiatlism orv whatever you like but china will grow it expoentillay until the average chiense is as wealthy as the average japanese - nand that means an economy at least 3 tome bigger than today- to want 2030 to be a workld in chich is not the bigest economy is totally unsustainableand nhot a good thing fir peopels koif any other country -see out 1977 first brief on preparing next generations of how extraordiunary worldwide collabiration needs to be if sustainabiliuty iof ours spoecies is what unites us all

2020 is the year president xi has set for ending poverty in china- the bigger a businss is the more kit is expecdetd to help with what it can linkin to that national goal- as well as being a brand thing that all ist tsakehiolders will audit it around, if it owns digiotal or othernmedia it knows the state can quickly penalise it (especially if it seeks to kfake corporate social responsibility)

we find that the chiense people dont admirfe bib business leaders lonlky for maing money- they expect that business leader to take real responsibility for regional development where she or he started up- in this way china maps cities a bit like england maps football clubs - thetre's a premeir leagu of about 20 supercities which inetract with sustainuing the workd's belts and riads as well as the nations goals - there are several other leagues; and nithing gets a bigget cheer than where youth suddenly network a whole cittyy's promotion up a league- when e say youthy we mean youth and their teachers- china's top briadcasters invetsigate education with an intensity no other nation does; it is obvuious that education systems all over tyhe world are yet fit for livelihoods of toadys uners 30s to alsi be the susrtainability generation- in china's case thus is a priblem inbvolving half a billion under 30's and because if the histirical oe chil piolicy- most grandparents saftey net depends most on whichever family member is graduating- yo have one youth not doing great work is a national shame- economiosts who mess tis up would kin china be sent to prison or at lesst retired to a vilage necver to h=be herad of again

President XI has a unique story

- he was in the fiusrt alumni of tsinghua during phase 2 of china celebrating big busienss- plahese 1 began in 1976- to get a big business licence you g=had to be poart of the diapora and bring a billion doilar inward investiment- many dispora wer happy to do this because duting the 3rd quarter of the 3=20th centiry they had been the east's infsratruictire builders and supoerport operators- this explains why since 1976 china has been mapping where f=dowe put port and riads with a logic the world has never seen before- when you listen to the head of the aiigb - a kind literary man- he suddnely gets very animated if you say infarstructire banking is about china tryinf to own the world-not at all he will tell you- when in 1980 i left china for first time toi a world bankl internemnt i saaw a telepohone that worked foir the first timje- in china of 1980 any messiage had to be hand delivered- so i value telphone infrastructut=[re even if you have never needed to.  

nothikng could be worse than a world leader who says peoples dont need to be connecetd- the reality is since 1946 communicatiosn etch splend s hace=ve doubled every 7 years; thge kind of poverty that will result by saying some people dont need to be linked into mobile connectivity is not just life ending for thise peoples but most likely the end of sustaining ourv whole species

so you want want to read any more of this unless you accept that belt raid bimage=ineering eeds to be something every 5th grader qi=uizzes every teacher on- you dont need to have herad kif cjian to ask do we have access to ports tahat can exconomically shipnour produce to rest of the world- acriss the contuent we live on do small enterpriues trade flow freely or are their histiry's bodres in the way- imagibe bening a landlocked nation surrounded by hostile neighbours- how do ever develop trade when you are locked in like that- yet the stargnge way the world was colonised by a few empires fom 1500 led to world wars and then yes indepenence but with most unatiral boundaries drawn as empires habded ove =r the mess they had compiunded for centiuries but no world class solutions- mess starts with where peoples have eg no elecricity

what we want to do in thsi first tourg guide is to start to list some chinese cities where the biggest business person also takes some sort of responsibility for that region uniquely developing the whole of china's ssutainability and in the pricess as china is large in geograpghy and a fift h of thye workds peoiple- most other countries peopels can learn by replicating what china's bu=iggest busienssmen gave bac=k to human and societal development

lets start with president xi's place devlopment bio

instead of going to high school xi was sent to a remore vilage aged 16 but with a trunk full of school books- so he could both self-learn and see if the book's learning had any relevance to a remore rural area

he then enetred tsinghyua as one of ist irst alumni under the new vision that tsinghua needed to train party youth to be the future developers of china- either as regional developers or in taking a stae form and makeing it 10 tikmes more effective-

by 1988 we know that Xi had been despatched to spome riral priovinces adjacent to what we now think of as the megopolis of shanghai- back in 1988 shanghai was not what it wass tuday so these rural areas needed a lot of help- see jinping essays out ogf poverty dated from 1988 on

perhaps a decade later xi went back totsing=hua - hos docftirte was on how to sme rural marjets; soon he was back in the shanghai region bui=t indcreasing involved in connecting the city and its rural region, and then he ecame responsibke for the whole shnghai region - during which tiome china still had few annual summits with other nations so xi helped to start sco which turns out to to the greatest innovation west and nirth china's trading relatiuonshipo have ever seen- and from aboiut 2007 xi was told to start planning yoyth tejuvenetsion if he became president in 2012 - this is where it was lucky for the world that jack ma was part of the region xi knoew well

hence in the list of china's syoersustainability cities - we have

hangzhou enhetreing as 4th  -help us blog why at alibabauni.com (note many twin cities of jack ma tokyo olympics geneva (wef idustrial reviokutiin u=4 , unctad gkobakbusienss school curriculum), malaysia forst test of EWTP  

buenos au=ires continuing g20 reasrch jack ma launched 2015-2016 preeping for chuina g20, torintio favortite connectir of g20 and gateway17.com, various cities contributing to jack ma's 15 billion doalsr researcf of futures institite DAMO, nairobi epicentre of unhabita with ist new in 2018 excetive directir former efmale mayir if penang (who is in chnarge of UN rankings of suoer-habitacities

to the

less surprising beijing (epicentres of worldwide youthb exhcnges include 1 .. youth media invited to BRI asummits next one beijing april 2018.)

Beijing universities have a unique roe in China- they are maoinly expecetd to colaborate with other suoercities so that world calss idea are distributed equally- the 3 universities that appear ti have this role generally are:

Tsinghua

Peking

Renimi

- theye are all ijn tghe same usburg which is alsio the biggest engtrepreneuruial hub in the wolrd where chiene busienss men with purpose meet other nations leaaders - a club chaired by jack ma

all of tehs euniversituies have close connectioins wuith china's tp 50 thinktanks- they all send people to be regularly interviewed by the main chuense briadcaster cgtn- however in chuna academic gurus are largely despised- you are supposed to use your authority the universities have created for you for the greater good- largely speaking chiense studnets are nit caught in student loan traps- when you understand family delpendence on their one graduate age member- this becomes clear as a nation wide demand

one of the possible exceptions to this is an international busienss school run out of beijing but sponsiored by hong kongs rochest businesmna ckgsb-= however this targets training people who are altready making money in busienss

to

shanghai (the world's biggest port), where glpbal comoaneis are encouraged ti have hq in chna, hime of new devlopment abnk and sco and blending east and west profesions--, and

shenzen (the city that now landbridges the hwole of hong kong with the Guanngdo=hou region) - just as hangzhou has the digitally inovative jack m , shenzhen has the digital wuizard pony ma of tencent

TIANJIN AND Dalian are the two cities sharing hosting of sumer world economicf forum- wef main twin localities include its hq geneva with davos the mountain where winter wef has always been- tokyo and san francisco the fiorst 2 hubs of indistrial brevolution 4

if we are correct the reserach you need to do is of china's biggest busiensmen, where they are located, and which ones join in sustainabilouty events internal belt riads; also look out for wherever a place is newly annonced as a special economic zone- some are particulat to sisyter city fredships where a dveloing nation has entrered into a pivotyal belr =[t raid strategic partershipn- there arre up to 65 such antions- one space to monitir what is happening is the Silk Road Chamber of INTl Commerce

XIAN with kong kong shares connectivity networking of the the SRCIC which offers massive cutural connections too as can be seen from this short summary

SRCIC has so far set up eight professional committees of trade, finance, culture, transportation, energy, information, industrial parks, and standard and brand, five alliances of Silk Road Urban Alliance, Silk Road Enterprise Development Alliance, Belt and Road Association Alliance, Silk Road International Museum Alliance, and Silk Road Think Tank Alliance, and six sub-organizations including www.eSilkRoad.com, Silk Road International Development Fund, Silk Road Cultural Park, Silk Road International Commodity Exchanges, Silk Road Transnational Financial Leasing Alliance, and International Artwork Trading Center as platforms for pragmatic cooperation among its members. SRCIC holds the Silk Road spirit of peace and cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, mutual learning and mutual benefit, and the principle of achieving shared growth through discussion and collaboration to contribute to the building of a global community with a shared future. Promoting business and cultural exchange for a win-win outcome is the goal and mission for SRCIC in this new historical era. SRCIC has its headquarters based in Hong Kong, its Secretariat in Xi'an, and its representative offices in both Beijing and Shanghai.

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https://www.weforum.org/events/annual-meeting-of-the-new-champions  TIANJIN AND Dalian

The Annual Meeting of the New Champions is the foremost global summit on innovation, science and technology, promoting entrepreneurship in the global public interest. Established in 2007, the meeting convenes the next generation of fast-growing enterprises shaping the future of business and society, and leaders from major multinationals, government, media, academia and civil society. Join a community of over 2,000 participants from 111 countries on 18-20 September 2018 in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China, for a global experience that addresses today’s intertwined global challenges relating to the Fourth Industrial Revolution - economic, political, societal, and environmental.

Global collaboration is needed to define the necessary principles of the Fourth Industrial Revolution - including artificial intelligence, blockchain and the internet of things - and the standards to ensure global interoperability.

Thursday, September 27th, 2018

6:30pm-8:30pm

 

Stanford Campus, Palo Alto

(Specific location will be included in the confirmation email that you will receive upon registration.)

Meet hosts of the 996 Podcast and other members of the 996 Community in the Bay Area!

Hans Tung & Zara Zhang of GGV Capital will conduct a short panel and Q&A, followed by happy hour and networking. 

Open to anyone who follows the 996 Podcast/Newsletter. 

RSVP is required and space is limited.

Hearing about "996" for the first time? Check us out at 996.ggvc.com.

Hans Tung

Managing Partner, GGV Capital

Co-host, 996 Podcast

Zara Zhang

Analyst, GGV Capital

Co-host, 996 Podcast

About 996

“996” is a biweekly podcast on entrepreneurship in China hosted by GGV Capital’s Hans Tung and Zara Zhang. In the show, they interview movers and shakers of China’s tech industry as well as tech leaders with a US-China cross-border perspective. Past guests on the show include Jerry Yang (founder of Yahoo!), Andrew Ng (former chief scientist of Baidu), Kai-Fu Lee (former president of Google China), Liu Zhen (SVP of ByteDance/Toutiao), Nathan Blecharczyk (co-founder of Airbnb), Tao Zhang (founder of Dianping), and Lin Bin (co-founder of Xiaomi). You can listen to the show on iTunes, Overcast, Spotify SoundCloud, XimalayaFM... just search “996" wherever you listen to podcasts. GGV also produces a biweekly email newsletter on tech trends in China, also called 996. You can subscribe at 996.ggvc.com. Join our followers' community via WeChat/Slack at 996.ggvc.com/community.

About GGV Capital

GGV Capital is a multi-stage venture capital firm based in Silicon Valley, Shanghai, and Beijing. With $3.8 billion in capital under management, GGV invests in globally minded entrepreneurs in social/internet, commerce/new retail, frontier tech, and enterprise/SaaS.

 
GGV has invested in over 290 companies with more than 45 companies valued at more than $1 billion. Portfolio companies include Airbnb, Alibaba, ByteDance (Toutiao), Ctrip, Didi, Grab, Hellobike, HashiCorp, Houzz, Keep, Opendoor, Peloton, Slack, Square, Wish, Xiaomi, Xiaohongshu, and YY. Find out more at ggvc.com.

=====================

Inside the Chinese lab that plans to rewire the world with AI

Alibaba is investing huge sums in AI research and resources—and it is building tools to challenge Google and Amazon.

 
  • March 7, 2018

The ticket kiosks at Shanghai’s frenetic subway station have a mind of their own.

Walk up to one and state your destination, and it’ll automatically recommend a route before issuing a ticket. It’ll even check your identification (a necessary step in China) by looking at your face. In the interest of reducing the rush-hour stampede, the system is set up to let you find information and buy tickets without pushing a button or talking to a person.

More impressive still, all this happens successfully in the middle of a crowded, noisy station. Each kiosk has to figure out who is speaking to it; zero in on that person’s voice within the crowd; transcribe the incoming speech; parse its meaning; and compare the person’s face against a massive database of photos—all within a few seconds.

To do it, the kiosks use several cutting-edge machine-learning algorithms. The really interesting thing, though, isn’t the algorithms themselves. It’s where they live. All that image processing and speech recognition is served up on demand by a cloud computing system owned by one of China’s most successful companies, the e-commerce giant Alibaba.

Alibaba is already using AI and machine learning to optimize its supply chain, personalize recommendations, and build products like Tmall Genie, a home device similar to the Amazon Echo. China’s two other tech supergiants, Tencent and Baidu, are likewise pouring money into AI research. The government plans to build an AI industry worth around $150 billion by 2030 and has called on the country’s researchers to dominate the field by then (see “China’s AI awakening”).

But Alibaba’s ambition is to be the leader in providing cloud-based AI. Like cloud storage (think Dropbox) or cloud computing (Amazon Web Services), cloud AI will make powerful resources cheaply and readily available to anyone with a computer and an internet connection, enabling new kinds of businesses to grow.

The real race in AI between China and the US, then, will be one between the two countries’ big cloud companies, which will vie to be the provider of choice for companies and cities that want to make use of AI. And if Alibaba is anything to go by, China’s tech giants are ready to compete with Google, Amazon, IBM, and Microsoft to serve up AI on tap. Which company dominates this industry will have a huge say in how AI evolves and how it is used.

Think bigger

Jack Ma created Alibaba Online, a simple e-commerce marketplace, in 1999, in his apartment in Hangzhou, on China’s east coast. Today the company’s headquarters, which I visited in January, consists of several large buildings housing tens of thousands of workers; the front entrance is guarded by a gigantic version of the company’s cartoonish orange mascot.

Alibaba’s core business remains selling goods and providing a platform for business-to-business trade. But this has spawned other lucrative operations, including a platform for logistics and shipments, an advertising network, and cloud computing and financial services. The company’s ubiquitous mobile payments app, Alipay, is run by a sister company, Ant Financial, which also offers loans, insurance, and investing via smartphone.


Jack Ma
SEAN GALLUP | GETTY


Last year on “Singles Day,” a shopping event on November 11 that Alibaba invented, the company sold more than $25 billion worth of merchandise. By contrast, on last year’s Cyber Monday (November 27), the biggest online shopping day in the US, all retailers combined brought in $6.59 billion.

The company’s success has also helped shape Hangzhou’s vibrant tech scene. The city is home to dozens of incubators, funded in part by government subsidies, that are filled with entrepreneurs who previously worked at Alibaba.

Alibaba’s colorful founder apparently doesn’t take any of this for granted. “Jack Ma believes we have been successful because of our business model, a hard-working team plus the operation,” says Xiangwen Liu, the company’s director of technology development. “In the next era of company competition, Jack’s belief is the business model cannot give success for a giant like Alibaba. His belief is in technology.”

Last October Ma announced that his company would spend $15 billion over the next three years on a research institute called the DAMO Academy (“discovery, adventure, momentum, and outlook”), dedicated to fundamental technologies. The Chinese name for the institute, 达摩, references Dharma, a legendary Indian monk said to have brought Buddhism to China in the fifth century.

China has long since shaken off its reputation for simply copying Western innovations. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), R&D spending in China grew tenfold between 2000 and 2016, rising from $40.8 billion to $412 billion in today’s dollars. The US still spends more—$464 billion in 2016—but its total has increased by only one-third since 2000.

Alibaba is already China’s biggest R&D spender, forking out $2.6 billion in 2017. DAMO will effectively triple its research budget, to more than $7 billion. That most likely means Alibaba will overtake IBM, Facebook, and Ford and will narrow the gap with the world’s leaders, Amazon and Alphabet, which spent $16.1 billion and $13.9 billion respectively on R&D in 2017.

DAMO will include a portfolio of research groups working on fundamental and emerging technologies including blockchain, computer security, fintech, and quantum computing. But AI is the biggest focus, and it seems like the one with the greatest potential.

DAMO clearly takes inspiration from the great commercial research labs of the 20th century. Liu mentions, for instance, AT&T’s Bell Labs, which conducted fundamental research on materials, electronics, and software, producing breakthroughs including the transistor, the laser, and the charge-coupled device for digital imaging, as well as the UNIX operating system and the programming languages C and C++. Liu says Alibaba is also inspired by the way the US’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funds different teams competing on the same project.

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Alibaba is clearly learning from the likes of Alphabet and Amazon, too. Like them, it has released a cloud machine-learning platform. The first from a Chinese company, it was launched in 2015 and upgraded significantly last year. The tools it offers are similar to those on Google Cloud and Amazon Web Services, including off-the-shelf solutions for things like voice recognition and image classification.

Developing these tools was a major technical undertaking for Alibaba. It signals both how ambitious the company is to shape the future of AI and how big a role cloud computing will play.

Another such signal is that Alibaba’s cloud supports several other companies’ deep-learning frameworks, including Google’s TensorFlow and Amazon’s MXNet. Deep learning—a technique for training machines to recognize things by feeding lots of data into a many-layered neural network—is the most important approach in AI right now, used for everything from controlling autonomous vehicles to transcribing speech. Tech companies build their own deep-learning frameworks in part to get users onto their cloud platforms, because those frameworks typically run best on their infrastructure. By supporting its competitors’ frameworks, Alibaba gives developers a reason to use its platform instead.

And that’s not all: Liu hints that Alibaba may be working on its own deep-learning framework, something that could help it get even more engineers hooked on its cloud. When asked if Alibaba might release some of the code it has developed, she answers: “When it’s mature.”

Smart answers 

There have been other glimpses of Alibaba’s progress in AI lately. Last month a research team at the company released an AI program capable of reading a piece of text, and answering simple questions about that text, more accurately than anything ever built before.

The text was in English, not Chinese, because the program was trained on the Stanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD), a benchmark used to test computerized question-and-answer systems. Alibaba’s program uses several novel machine-learning techniques, and it notched a higher score than entries from Microsoft, Samsung, and others. Remarkably, it scored better than the average human being (although this is a bit deceptive; it doesn’t mean the program actually understands what it is reading). 

More remarkable, though, is how fast Alibaba rose up the leaderboard. The company only submitted its first entry to SQuAD in September 2017. “Quite a few of the top 10 teams represent top Chinese institutions, reflecting the ongoing democratization of AI,” says Pranav Samir Rajpurkar, a PhD student at Stanford who runs the SQuAD contest.

Alibaba has already used the program to improve the automated customer support on its online marketplace, says Si Luo, a member of the team. And it hopes to deploy language understanding across its platforms and technologies.

Alibaba’s AI researchers are working on other cutting-edge projects, such as generative adversarial networks, or GANs. In this exciting new machine-learning approach, developed by a Google researcher, two neural networks are pitted against one another; one tries to generate data that seems as if it comes from a real data set, and the other tries to distinguish real examples from fake ones. The technique lets computers learn more efficiently from unlabeled data, and it can be used to create realistic-looking synthetic images and video (see “The GANfather: The man who’s given machines the gift of imagination”).



WANG HE | GETTY


Gathering clouds 

One advantage China’s tech companies have over their Western counterparts is the government’s commitment to AI. Smart cities that use the kind of technology found in Shanghai’s metro kiosks are likely to be in the country’s future. One of Alibaba’s cloud AI tools is a suite called City Brain, designed for tasks like managing traffic data and analyzing footage from city video cameras.

There are such experiments in the West too, such as Alphabet’s Sidewalk project, which plans to transform a suburb of Toronto with autonomous vehicles, delivery robots, and AI-based management systems. But China will most likely want to do things on a larger scale, which will give its companies an edge in the global marketplace for AI.

The Chinese authorities’ interest in using technology for social control also helps. There are plans for a “social credit system” that would track and score citizens’ everyday behavior with a view to perks or punishment. Face recognition software from Chinese companies like SenseTime is being used to find criminals in surveillance footage, and to track suspected dissidents.

Another advantage Chinese firms enjoy is access to vast amounts of data—because of China’s huge population— with relatively few restraints on how it can be used. Ant Financial’s Alipay, for instance, has more than 520 million users, and the company determines a person’s creditworthiness, in part, by examining his or her daily financial transactions and social connections. This wouldn’t fly in Europe or the US, where strict rules dictate what kinds of data can go into a credit score. But in regions like Africa, where China has a strong economic foothold, such technologies could become the norm.

Alibaba is already exporting AI technology. It is the world’s fifth-largest cloud-computing provider, behind Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and IBM, and its cloud machine-learning platform is available in several languages, including English. This week, Alibaba launched a version aimed at developers and companies in Europe; it also announced a new AI lab in collaboration with Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University.

In some places, Alibaba is arguably ahead of the competition. Last December, it announced a collaboration with the Malaysian government to provide smart city services, including a video platform that can automatically detect accidents and help optimize traffic flow.

AI with Chinese characteristics

So if the world’s AI is supplied by China, what sorts of values will it come with? In the West there is growing concern about issues such as biased algorithms and job losses to automation. That kind of debate is less often heard in China. Speaking at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland,  recently, Jack Ma, Alibaba’s boss, acknowledged the risks  that come with AI; but unlike its US counterparts, Alibaba isn’t involved with ethics groups like the Partnership on AI. And unlike, say, DeepMind, the AI-focused subsidiary of Alphabet, it doesn’t have an internal ethics division.

As China becomes more proficient in AI, it will help determine how the technology reshapes the world. And Alibaba will undoubtedly be an important part of this picture.

“Well before anybody used the term artificial intelligence in a business context, Alibaba was a major innovator,” says William Kirby, a China expert at Harvard Business School. “In my view, the company has done more to change the way business is done in China than anyone; they are ambitious on every front.”

Keep up with the latest in AI at EmTech MIT.
Discover where tech, business, and culture converge.

September 11-14, 2018
MIT Media Lab

sco

withoutyh the sco major #BR3 projects probably wouldnt have happend

25 coluntrues across Eurasia now share a railway line- critical for massive landlocked nations and in many ways the biggest hope of any nation still caught up in conflicts that spun from bityh cold war and pist-cold war era- typically the stans in west and central regions of Eurasia and how this also spill over to all nations facing the gulf and in the middle iof the future of oil

without meaning to be ride the rissian peoples are arguably the most misunderstood firce in teh world- they own the largest amount od land even now after the split up fromk the old ussr - they are less than 2% of population and of formal economic valuation but one of the 2 bigest nuclear powers; they have often been the target not the iniatir of history's war - eg when the french tried to inc=vade rfussian under na;poloen or even is siding with the allies against hitelr in world war2 - but in our opinion mush of todays' wetern misunderstanding stems from the fact that stalin was the scond worst leader in the modern world almost as tryrnaical as hitler- 

it seems very logical to us that the chiense people would ant to help rissina people have more enjoyable livelihood and that goal is something all who join belt road movemenst can also celebarte wherever rissia's progress towards the future all youth want is inpired by china's youth

The Shanghai Five grouping was created 26 April 1996 with the signing of the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions in Shanghai, China by the heads of states of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan.

On 24 April 1997, the same countries signed the Treaty on Reduction of Military Forces in Border Regions in a meeting in Moscow, Russia.[20] On 20 May 1997, President of Russia Boris Yeltsin and prime minister of China Jiang Zemin signed a declaration on a "multipolar world"[21].

Russian President Vladimir Putin, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Chinese President Jiang Zemin, Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev, and Tajik President Emomali Rahmon, at one time the leaders of the Shanghai Five.

Subsequent annual summits of the Shanghai Five group occurred in Almaty, Kazakhstan in 1998, in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan in 1999, and in Dushanbe, Tajikistan in 2000. At the Dushanbe summit, members agreed to "oppose intervention in other countries' internal affairs on the pretexts of 'humanitarianism' and 'protecting human rights;' and support the efforts of one another in safeguarding the five countries' national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, and social stability."[22]

In 2001, the annual summit returned to Shanghai. There the five member nations first admitted Uzbekistan in the Shanghai Five mechanism (thus transforming it into the Shanghai Six). Then all six heads of state signed on 15 June 2001 the Declaration of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, praising the role played thus far by the Shanghai Five mechanism and aiming to transform it to a higher level of cooperation.

In June 2002, the heads of the SCO member states met in Saint Petersburg, Russia. There they signed the SCO Charter which expounded on the organisation's purposes, principles, structures and forms of operation, and established it in international law.

In July 2005, at the summit in Astana, Kazakhstan, with representatives of India, Iran, Mongolia and Pakistan attending a SCO summit for the first time, the president of the host country, Nursultan Nazarbayev, greeted the guests in words that had never been used before in any context: "The leaders of the states sitting at this negotiation table are representatives of half of humanity".[23]

By 2007 the SCO had initiated over twenty large-scale projects related to transportation, energy and telecommunications and held regular meetings of security, military, defence, foreign affairs, economic, cultural, banking and other officials from its member states.[citation needed]

In July 2015 in Ufa, Russia, the SCO decided to admit India and Pakistan as full members. Both signed the memorandum of obligations in June 2016 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, thereby starting the formal process of joining the SCO as full members.[24] On 9 June 2017, at a summit in Astana, India and Pakistan officially joined SCO as full-fledged members.

The SCO has established relations with the United Nations in 2004 (where it is an observer in the General Assembly), Commonwealth of Independent States in 2005, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2005, the Collective Security Treaty Organization in 2007, the Economic Cooperation Organization in 2007, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in 2011, the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) in 2014, and the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific in 2015.[25]

In 2017, SCO's eight full members account for approximately half of the world's population, a quarter of the world's GDP, and about 80% of Eurasia's landmass.

Organisational structure[edit]

Structure of the SCO.png

The Council of Heads of State is the top decision-making body in the SCO. This council meets at the SCO summits, which are held each year in one of the member states' capital cities. The current Council of Heads of State consists of:

The Council of Heads of Government is the second-highest council in the organisation. This council also holds annual summits, at which time members discuss issues of multilateral cooperation. The council also approves the organisation's budget. The current Council of Heads of Government consists of:

The Council of Foreign Ministers also hold regular meetings, where they discuss the current international situation and the SCO's interaction with other international organisations.[26]

The Council of National Coordinators coordinates the multilateral cooperation of member states within the framework of the SCO's charter.

The Secretariat of the SCO is the primary executive body of the organisation. It serves to implement organisational decisions and decrees, drafts proposed documents (such as declarations and agendas), function as a document depository for the organisation, arranges specific activities within the SCO framework, and promotes and disseminates information about the SCO. It is located in Beijing. The current SCO Secretary-General is Rashid Alimov of Tajikistan, appointed to the office of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Secretary-General on January 2016.[27]

The Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS), headquartered in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, is a permanent organ of the SCO which serves to promote cooperation of member states against the three evils of terrorism, separatism and extremism. The Head of RATS is elected to a three-year term. Each member state also sends a permanent representative to RATS.[28]

The official working languages of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation are Chinese and Russian.

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BRI.school ENTREPRENEURIAL REVOLUTION NETWORK BENCHMARKS 2025now : Remembering Norman Macrae

Map with Belt Road Imagineers :where do you want to partner in sustaining world

Our search for top 50 World Record Jobs Creators begins with E1 Xi Jinping - World's Number 1 Job Creator - Peoples Global2.0 

Girls world maps begin at B01 Bangladesh economical miracle of 15 million poorest village mothers grasssroots networking -good news reporting with fazleabed.com brac.tv and valuetrue.com and womenuni.com

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online library of norman macrae--

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correspondence welcomed on 50 year curriculum of Entrepreneurial Revolution and net generation as most productive time to be alive - chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk

MA1 AliBaba TaoBao

Ma 2 Ali Financial

Ma10.1 DT and ODPS

health catalogue; energy catalogue

Keynes: 2025now - jobs Creating Gen

.

how poorest women in world build

A01 BRAC health system,

A02 BRAC education system,

A03 BRAC banking system

K01 Twin Health System - Haiti& Boston

K02 Twin YouthWorldBanking: Haiti& Bkash (BRAC)

K03 Twin Open Society : Budapest-Rome - Economists and Peace Champions

A04 Africa & Asia's 5 Billion Peoples eleraning satellite Yazmi

A05 Triplet Open Apps Media Labs of Ethiopia and MIT and Ma-Lee (worldwide China)

Job creation case Y01 Foundation of Grameen Bank- good news in association with grameen.tv
Ma 10,2 grameen inteldt

Ma 10.3 IHUB/Usha Kenya DT

Ma 10.4 Kenya nanocredit

Ma 10.5 MIT top ten mobile app labs of open tech

Ma 10.6 berners lee www

KMAS1 Kimchoices KMAS1.1 Ki-Moon KMAS1.2 Sun F Yang Lan

W4E1 telecentres for girls jobs

W4E2 womens nanocredit

KHANac

BRACAbed,

CEUSoros

,SABlecher

MITtbl

NOBATYunus

LUCKNOWGandhi

ChinaMa

NZDryden

MEDIALABNegropronte > Yazmi

COURSEraKoller >OLC

AFM00 Samara and AfricaStar and Yazmi
AFM10 IHUB/Ushahidi
AFM11 MIT Media Lab Africa
AFM12 MIT D-lab and Abdul Latif with Toyota
AFM121 Polak last mile multinationals africa –eg green energy and clean water distrib
AFM13 Ibrahim Foundation
AFM14 Africa24tv
TB1 Free University and Jobs Schools
TB11 Open Learning Campus Africa
AFM15 Young Africa Society –world bank ypa milennials’ goals 2.1
AFM2 Jamii Bora –end slums youth banking and partner labs
TB20 Primary financial literacy curriculum – eg Afaatoun out of Orphanages
AFM21 Bridges primary schools
TB21 Love of self- empowerment curriculum – eg Maharishi (TB1)
TB22 Coding curricula from primary up
AFM31 Kiva Africa
AFM32 Acumen
AFM33 BRAC African Girl Jobs-creating banking
AFM34 Eagri-Africa
AFM35 African health millennials www –and PIH Rwanda, Free Nursing College Africa
AFM36 Mara Foundation
AFM4 MPESA/Safari
AFM5 Nanocredit
AFM6 USADBC - diaspora association benchmarking african food security value chains
AFM61 –diaspora multi-country celebrations eg AfricaTip (AgeTip)
AFM611 NEPAD
AFM612 Makerfaireafrica
BOM1 berners lee
BOM2 mit every students an entrepreneur
BOM21 MIT100k
BOM3 mit media lab -open source wizard entrepreneurs and new commons
BOM30 Negroponte $100 Laptop
BOM31 Joi Ito
BOM32 reclaim our learning
BOM4 MIT open education movement
BIM41 OLA
BOM5 Legatum
BO51 Legatum millennials and fans
BOM52 networks of cashless banking technolgists
BOM53 innovations journal
BOM6 partners in health/brigham womens hospital
BOM61 value chain networks club inspired by pih and world bank millenials
BOM62 ypchronic
BOM63 GFH
BOM64 Haiti training hospital - connector of neraly free nursing college
BOSF1 Kiva and puddle
BOSF2 Khan Academy
BOSF3 Coursera segment interested in Open Learning Campus

communications and community banking links series 1 and 2

Out of The Economist since 1972 Macrae's viewpoint Entrepreneurial Revolution argues that the net generation can make tremendous human progress if and only if educators, economists and all who make the biggest resource integrate youth job creating into the way their worldwide purpose and impact is valued -chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk join in ... 43rd Entrepreneurial Revolution Youth Networks Celebration..
 


job creation survey

discuss valuation video

Norman Macrae Foundation

e chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk

Wash DC tel 1 301 881 1655

 

 

 

For how many of The Economist's first 175 years was it the most effective mediator of sustainability exponentials of humanity all over the planet

 

best million-youth moocs hosted by economists

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discuss valuation video

hottest youth-spring question of our life and times-can online education end youth unemployment for ever ? yes but only if you help map how!

moocyunus launches youtube competition -what would purpose of youth's favorite free online university be?

join blog of moocyunus

 

 The Economist- when first seeing youth experiment with digital networks in 1972,

Season's most urgent collaboration debates:

next 100 million jobs nursing

42nd year of 7 wonders if thinkpad of The Economist's genre of Entrepreneurial Revoution

40 years of notes from archives of entrepreneurial revolution 1-7 a...

 

help catalogue top 100 microfranchises

 

help catalogue 100 short videos on right old muddle of anti-youth economists..

Dad (Norman Macrae) created the genre Entrepreneurial Revolution  to debate how to make the net generation the most productive and collaborative . We had first participated in computer assisted learning experiments in 1972. Welcome to more than 40 years of linking pro-youth economics networks- debating can the internet be the smartest media our species has ever collaborated around?

Foundation Norman Macrae- The Economist's Pro-Youth Economist

5801 Nicholson Lane Suite 404 Rockville MD 20852   tel 301 881 1655 email chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk

Main Project webs wholeplanet.tv

microeducationsummit.com including yunusdiary.com bracnet.ning.com taddyblecher.com as lead open education partner of mandela elders and branson 

NormanMacrae.ning.com

2013 = 170th Year of The Economist being Founded to End Hunger

2010s = Worldwide Youth's most productive and collaborative decade

 1972: Norman Macrae starts up Entrepreneurial Revolution debates in The Economist. Will we the peoples be in time to change 20th C largest system designs and make 2010s worldwide youth's most productive time? or will we go global in a way that ends sustainability of ever more villages/communities? Drayton was inspired by this genre to coin social entrepreneur in 1978 ,,continue the futures debate here

world favorite moocs-40th annual top 10 league table

  • 1) e-ME
  • 2) 8 week tour of grameen curriculum and uniting human race to poverty museums
  • 3) 8 week tour of brac curriculum and mapping microeducation summit for post 2015 milennium goals

send votes to chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk , Macrae Foundation

  • 4) 8 week tour of africa's free university and entrepreneurial slums
  • 5 what to do now for green energy to save the world in time
  • 6 nurses as 21st world's favorite information grassroots networkers and most economical cheerleaders more

 

 

  • 7 how food security as a mising curricululum of middle schools can co-create more jobs than any nation can dream of
  • 8 pro-youth economics and public servants
  • 9 celebrating china as number 1 creditor nation
  • 10 questions worldwide youth are asking about what was true last decade but false this decade because that's what living in the most innovative era means chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk

archives at The Economist



 

Number 1 in Economics for Youth

The unacknowledged giantcelebrate unacknowledged giant

dannyboyle chrispatten butler-sloss marianowak tomhunter MYunusgeorgesoros bernerslee michael palin

Timeless ER from The Economist's Unacknowledged Giant (aka dad Norman Macrae) A  b  c ;;1997 a;;; 1983 a ;;;1976 a b;;; 1972 a ;;; 1962 a 1956 a - correspndence with optimistic rationalists always welcome - chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk

 

from chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk please help in 2 ways -nomination of collaboration 100; testify to world's largest public broadcasters such as BBCthat this survey needs their mediation now

Intercapital searches for replicable youth eonomic franchise

.Japan

Bangladesh

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Atlanta.
Paris
Turkey.
Dhaka.
Austria
Boston
Brussels Poland
China
Switzerland
Princeton-Nashville
London-Glasgow Nordica: S D N
Canada
Austin
Spain .Kenya
Brazil Joburg
Oregon/CA
Germany
.S.Africa
.India

 

 

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